When UFOs Attack – Documented Cases of Hostile Alien Encounters

#UFO #UAP #Alien #hostile #unknown

If there is one misguided theme I have heard repeated many times in and outside of the UFO community, it is the notion that UFOs and extraterrestrials are our benevolent technological and spiritual superiors, who are only trying to watch over us and gently guide human kind from a path of nuclear, biological and ecological self-destruction to an interstellar highway of spiritual enlightenment and prosperity.

This mantra has been repeated ad nauseum ever since the first UFO was sighted and close encounter was experienced. Yet, there is much documented evidence that these aliens, extraterrestrials or inter-dimensional interlopers may not always be benevolent. On the contrary, there is much more proof that these uninvited guests, who boldly penetrate our airspace, have at times kidnapped, injured and killed innocent humans and animals.

Thankfully, this wasn’t the case in the latest, solidly documented close-encounter case recorded in a recently released Pentagon UFO study. The usually mum Department of Defense almost appeared eager to report the Nov. 14, 2004 UFO incident, experienced by former Navy pilot David Fravor, who repeated a familiar story to all of us who have studied the history of Ufology the last 70 years. While flying a routine mission off an aircraft carrier he and other pilots spotted a UFO that made incredibly sharp turns and reached speeds impossible for aircraft using Earth’s technology. As he watched this mystery craft zip away at an extremely high speed, he came to the same conclusion many of his fellow, military pilots have come to: “It was not of this world,” Fravor told various news organizations. He added that no human could have possibly withstood the G force of such a tremendous thrust of sudden acceleration.

In this concise report, I will present to you documented evidence of a pilot unlike Fravor, who suffered harm in such a mysterious encounter. Such incidents are vastly under reported. For example, until I really started researching this subject, I never realized that a U.S. Army pilot became the first known casualty as a result of such UFO aggression. Although the Army denied this, and summarily covered up this horrifying event with no less than three different, ever- morphing cover stories, I will present you with documentation and eyewitness accounts from credible witnesses that prove within a reasonable doubt that on a January afternoon in 1948 hostile extraterrestrials committed an act of war against the United States. It was likely not the first – and certainly – will not be the last.

I will also present evidence that proves that the population of a small island was terrorized and its impoverished residents used as guinea pigs by an alleged flap of UFOs that harassed and injured scores of innocent men and women for a period of months. Some of these unfortunates still carry the scars from burns and wounds that were inflicted upon them by these unknown perpetrators. The proof consists of eyewitness accounts and secret documents that have been leaked out over several decades. Additionally, in this report, I will document numerous cases of aggressive and hostile UFO acts taken against both military and commercial pilots.

As a bonus, I have also included many little known UFO sighting reports from the early 1860’s to the present. Even though some of these are not directly hostile encounters, all of them invaded our airspace and in some cases crash landed, exposing humans to potential injury or death. Plus, I will present documentation of ongoing cattle mutilations that remain a dark mystery but point to either nefarious government and alien culprits — or a collaboration of both. In conclusion, I must warn you that some will not like this report. They will categorize my conclusions as alarmist and sensational. But as always, I leave it up to you the reader to decide.

Here’s Our Best Look Yet at Saturn’s ‘UFO’ Moon

Saturn's moon, Pan
One of Cassini’s new views of Saturn’s moon Pan.PHOTOGRAPH BY NASA/JPL-CALTECH/SPACE SCIENCE INSTITUTE
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Saturn’s ‘UFO’ Moon Pan is unlike anything else you will encounter!

#UFO #Moon #Staurn #Pan

Adorned with a thin band of icy ring particles, the small moon Pan inspires comparisons to alien spacecraft, walnuts, and even ravioli.

There’s a tiny “flying saucer” orbiting deep within Saturn’s rings, and a NASA probe has just gotten its most impressive look yet at the strange object.

The saucer is actually a little moon called Pan, and NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured its distinctive shape on March 7 in a stunningly detailed series of images.

When she first saw the new pictures of Pan, Cassini scientist Carolyn Porco thought they might be an artist’s representation.

Saturn's moon, Pan
Another raw image from Cassini showcases Pan’s equatorial band.
PHOTOGRAPH BY NASA/JPL-CALTECH/SPACE SCIENCE INSTITUTE

“They are real! Science is better than fiction,” she later commented.

Named for the flute-playing Greek god of wild places, 21-mile-wide Pan is what’s called a shepherd moon. It lives within a gap in Saturn’s A ring, which is the farthest loop of icy particles from the planet. As it zips around Saturn, Pan continually clears debris from the gap by vacuuming up some ring particles and punting others away, like a little Roomba with a force field.

In fact, it’s this absence of ring junk that led scientists to predict Pan’s existence as early as the mid-1980s. But the small moon wasn’t officially discovered until 1990, when Mark Showalter and his colleagues took a good look at images returned by the Voyager 2 spacecraft and found the moon that is responsible for the gap’s existence.about:blank

Now, with the Cassini spacecraft zooming through the Saturnian system, scientists have gotten the chance to see Pan up close. Early images revealed its walnut shape, which Porco and her colleagues attributed to debris from the rings.

These more recent images show in detail that the moon is swaddled in what’s called an equatorial accretion disk, or a smooth, thin layer of ring particles that have been glued on to Pan’s waistline by the moon’s meager gravity.

“This is such a far cry from the nondescript ‘dots’ that I was tracking way back in 1990 in the Voyager images! It’s very gratifying finally to see Pan’s closeup,”says Showalter, now at the SETI Institute in California.

In a 2007 study published in Science, Porco suggested the thin disk formed long ago, before the moon had completely vacuumed out material from the gap.

“The shape, as others have also pointed out, is probably because it is always sweeping up fine dust from the rings,” Showalter explains. “The rings are very thin compared to the size of Pan, so the dust accumulates around its equator.”

Pan isn’t alone in its bizarre appearance: Another small moon, Atlas, bears a similar shape for similar reasons.

Could the Next Space Station Be a Hotel?

Commercializing space is no longer a far-out idea. In fact, NASA is fully on board. #space #spacehotel #hotel #spacestation

It had a good run.
It had a good run. Photographer: NASA/Getty

In 1967, Barron Hilton, the future head of Hilton Hotels Corp., turned up at an American Astronautical Society meeting devoted to “outer space tourism.” The first moon landing was still two years out, but Hilton wasn’t going to be late to the next big travel market. At the conference, he laid out plans for Earth-orbiting Hiltons and lunar hotels, complete with Galaxy Lounges where guests might “enjoy a martini and the stars.”

Alas, humans would have to wait decades for an outer-space outpost, and the one they got, the International Space Station, wasn’t built for private occupation, much less luxury travel. But now, as the ISS nears the end of its useful life, some entrepreneurs are revisiting Hilton’s vision — and even thinking bigger.

The American ambition to commercialize space is almost as old as the urge to explore it. In 1962, NASA launched Telstar 1, the world’s first privately financed satellite (paid for by AT&T). Hours after launch, it relayed the first live trans-Atlantic television pictures, opening the way for today’s multibillion-dollar communication-satellite industry.

But actual space stations that could host human visitors turned out to be a far greater challenge. Although Soviet and American scientists launched competing designs for such a facility in the 1970s, these were more akin to floating tin cans than Hilton’s vacation bungalows. Yet NASA was lobbying for something much more ambitious: a crewed orbital station that could serve as a laboratory, factory and waypoint for travel to the moon and Mars.

The ISS, announced in 1984, seemed to fit the bill. Like many government projects with multiple stakeholders, however, it ran persistently over-budget and over-deadline. Its first launch didn’t get off the ground until 1998. Total costs over the three decades to 2015 are thought to have exceeded $150 billion, giving the ISS a decent claim to being the most expensive thing ever built. For that kind of money, Americans rightly expected the ISS to get a lot done. Yet the facility has been badly underused for most of its history, thanks to both chronic mismanagement and the high cost of delivering people and equipment to space.

Starting in 2005, NASA hit on a new strategy for addressing the latter problem. It signed agreements with three private space companies to deliver cargo and crew to the station, in the hopes of both driving down costs and encouraging a commercial space industry to develop. NASA would act as an adviser and investor, and select the most promising design to replace the soon-to-be-retired Space Shuttle.

It was a long-shot bet that little-known companies such as SpaceX could do better than traditional aerospace contractors. And it was a huge success: Sixteen years later, the cost of launching people and gear to the ISS has fallen dramatically, and commercial space is booming. Last year, Estee Lauder Cos. arranged for face cream to be photographed on the station. This year, tourists will arrive for a holiday via a SpaceX rocket (at $55 million per ticket) and Tom Cruise will film scenes for an upcoming movie.

But NASA’s vision extends well beyond such one-offs. In 2020, the agency contracted with Axiom Space Inc. to attach modules (with Philippe Starck-designed interiors) to the ISS that will break off and form a commercial station that will include residential quarters as well as a lab and manufacturing facility. In March, it announced that it will fund up to four other companies to develop competing concepts, using a similar model to the one that led to SpaceX’s success. 

Many details remain to be worked out, including what exactly to do with the ISS. But a sustainable commercial outpost in low-Earth orbit has a lot to recommend it. NASA would merely have to be a customer rather than an owner-operator, thus saving money for taxpayers or for other space priorities. Companies could use the new platform to conduct microgravity experiments, pharmaceutical research, materials-science testing and more. As costs decline, there’s good reason to think that they’ll come up with entirely novel uses for it.

Of course, no one should expect orbiting Hiltons just yet. But the dream of commercializing space is no longer a moonshot.

A new ‘Einstein’ equation suggests wormholes hold key to quantum gravity

ER=EPR summarizes new clues to understanding entanglement and spacetime

illustration of a wormhole
Wormholes, tunnels through the fabric of spacetime that connect widely separated locations, are predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Some physicists think that wormholes could connect black holes in space, possibly providing a clue to the mysteries of quantum entanglement and how to merge general relativity with quantum mechanics.STOCKERNUMBER2/SHUTTERSTOCK 

There’s a new equation floating around the world of physics these days that would make Einstein proud.

It’s pretty easy to remember: ER=EPR.

You might suspect that to make this equation work, P must be equal to 1. But the symbols in this equation stand not for numbers, but for names. E, you probably guessed, stands for Einstein. R and P are initials — for collaborators on two of Einstein’s most intriguing papers. Combined in this equation, these letters express a possible path to reconciling Einstein’s general relativity with quantum mechanics.

Quantum mechanics and general relativity are both spectacularly successful theories. Both predict bizarre phenomena that defy traditional conceptions of reality. Yet when put to the test, nature always complies with each theory’s requirements. Since both theories describe nature so well, it’s hard to explain why they’ve resisted all efforts to mathematically merge them. Somehow, everybody believes, they must fit together in the end. But so far nature has kept the form of their connection a secret.

ER=EPR, however, suggests that the key to their connection can be found in the spacetime tunnels known as wormholes. These tunnels, implied by Einstein’s general relativity, would be like subspace shortcuts physically linking distant locations. It seems that such tunnels may be the alter ego of the mysterious link between subatomic particles known as quantum entanglement.

For the last 90 years or so, physicists have pursued two main quantum issues separately: one, how to interpret the quantum math to make sense of its weirdness (such as entanglement), and two, how to marry quantum mechanics to gravity. It turns out, if ER=EPR is right, that both questions have the same answer: Quantum weirdness can be understood only if you understand its connection to gravity. Wormholes may forge that link.

Wormholes are technically known as Einstein-Rosen bridges (the “ER” part of the equation). Nathan Rosen collaborated with Einstein on a paper describing them in 1935. EPR refers to another paper Einstein published with Rosen in 1935, along with Boris Podolsky. That one articulated quantum entanglement’s paradoxical puzzles about the nature of reality. For decades nobody seriously considered the possibility that the two papers had anything to do with one another. But in 2013, physicists Juan Maldacena and Leonard Susskind proposed that in some sense, wormholes and entanglement describe the same thing.

Celebrate Earth Day 2021 with the Lyrid Meteor Shower

Don’t miss the first big meteor shower of 2021! I’ll show you when and where to look to see the Lyrids and give some tips on ways to increase the number of meteors you can see! Be sure to let me know about your questions and experience with the Lyrid Meteor Shower in the comment section below. Clear skies everyone!

Lyrid meteor shower peaks predawn April 22. Here’s how to watch

This is a meteor from the Lyrids, as seen in the sky in Schermbeck, Germany, April 22, 2020.This is a meteor from the Lyrids, as seen in the sky in Schermbeck, Germany, April 22, 2020.

Every year from January to mid-April, we experience a “meteor drought,” without a single shower for months.That all ends April 22 this year with the first show of the season: the annual Lyrid meteor shower.”These dazzling meteors are fast and bright, with a striking golden trail of dust streaking behind them,” CNN meteorologist Judson Jones said.

The Lyrids, which are best seen from the Northern Hemisphere, have been observed for 2,700 years, according to NASA. During its peak, this shower will feature about 10 meteors per hour.

You might even spot a fireball flying across the sky or the glowing dust trail the meteors frequently leave behind them as they streak through Earth’s atmosphere.

As with all meteor showers, the darker the sky, the more visible the Lyrids will be. If you want to view them, you’ll have your best luck away from urban areas where city lights can obstruct the view.” Light pollution is one of the biggest struggles when trying to see meteors, and it seems to be getting worse each year,” Jones said.

But there is one other factor that impacts light as well: the moon. This year, the moon will be in its waxing gibbous phase; it will be about 70% illuminated. Since the moon will be so bright, it’s suggested you view the sky after moonset and before sunrise, according to EarthSky.Between midnight and dawn, the Lyrid meteors can be seen in all parts of the sky, according to the American Meteor Society. The best time for viewing them April 22 will be the last hour before the start of morning twilight: around 4-5 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time.The view of the starry sky shining over the Baltic Sea, when the Lyrids passed through in 2020. The view of the starry sky shining over the Baltic Sea, when the Lyrids passed through in 2020.After you’ve decided on your viewing location and time, come prepared with a blanket and simply lie back, with your feet facing east, and look toward the sky. Take 30 minutes beforehand to let your eyes adjust to the dark, without looking at your phone.Be patient, as the AMS suggests: “Serious observers should watch for at least an hour as numerous peaks and valleys of activity will occur.”If your eye catches a meteor in the sky, you’ll be observing one of the lost pieces of Comet Thatcher, the source of the Lyrid meteors. These fragments fly into our upper atmosphere at 110,000 miles per hour as Earth’s orbit crosses its path.”When these pieces interact with our atmosphere, they burn up to reveal the fiery, colorful streaks you can find in our night sky,” Jones said.If you miss the meteors this week but still want to gaze at the sky, see next week’s “pink” full supermoon on April 26. While the moon won’t actually be pink, it will appear extra bright since supermoons are slightly closer to Earth.

Meteor blazes across South Florida skies

There was debate online regarding the meteor’s origin

Southern Florida residents were stunned to see a meteor blazing through the darkness Monday night, with some sharing footage of the spectacle on social media.

Dashcam and security video revealed the quick, bright flash of light as the meteor streaked through the Earth’s atmosphere.

In a matter of seconds, the fireball had disappeared from sight. 

At 10:16 p.m. ET, a doorbell camera looking out on a back patio in Parkland showed how the sky lit up and a Coral Springs Twitter user with a Nest camera recorded a different angle of its descent.

“Did you happen to see a meteor this evening? We’ve gotten a few reports about one that could be seen from #SWFL!” tweeted the National Weather Service’s Tampa Bay account. “Our #GOES-16 Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) appears to have captured the bright meteor as it burned up off the coast.”

Local reporter Jay O’Brien was streaming on Facebook Live when he captured the meteor in West Palm Beach.

“WOAH!” he said on Twitter. “Big flash and streak across sky in West Palm Beach. Happened moments ago while we were on Facebook Live for a @CBS12 story. Working to figure out what it was.”

O’Brien’s colleague, meteorologist Zach Covey, replied and said that the space rock was “like a chunk of an asteroid known as 2021 GW4.”Whoops! We couldn’t access this Tweet.

However, NPR reported Tuesday that there seemed to be “disagreement” over whether or not that was actually the case.

Space.com said Monday that 2021 GW4 — which was first spotted on April 8 and is estimated to be about 14 feet across —  had harmlessly flown past Earth and was approximately just more than 16,000 miles away.

While NASA notes an asteroid is a “relatively small, inactive, rocky body orbiting the Sun,” a meteor is the “light phenomena which results when a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere and vaporizes.”

A meteoroid is a “small particle” from an asteroid.

In general, meteors are common, though less than 5% make it to the ground, according to the agency.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDIED KURT COBAIN TO CREATE A ‘NEW’ NIRVANA SONG, AND IT… KINDA ROCKS

Though hits like “Smells Like Teen Spirit” and “In Bloom” remain FM staples decades later, the tragic 1994 death of singer-songwriter Kurt Cobain cut short any future catalog for grunge rock pioneers Nirvana. But in 2021, we actually have a “new” Nirvana song — thanks to artificial intelligence and a pitch perfect assist from a cover band leading man.

As part of the Lost Tapes of the 27 Club, a project that is using artificial intelligence to create new music in the style of famous musicians who died at the age of 27, the “new” Nirvana song “Drowned in the Sun” was born. The Lost Tapes of the 27 Club zeroes in on famous musicians whose lives were cut short, talents like Jim Morrison, Jimi Hendrix, Amy Winehouse and of course Cobain, and uses AI to analyze dozens of an artist’s songs to create something new and original in their trademark style.

There’s no doubt this new Nirvana tune evokes the trademark vibe of Cobain’s gritty guitars and crunchy melodies, and the AI actually generated some very Cobain-esque lyrics, including the chorus, “I don’t care, I feel as one, drowned in the sun.” The song-writing was all handled by AI, though Nirvana tribute band lead singer Eric Hogan helped provide the Cobain-esque growl to bring the lyrics to life.

Check out the tune below:

On the tech side, the project utilized Google’s AI program Magenta to study and break down the recurring components of the songs and generate the “new” tune from those building blocks. The AI studied everything from stylistic tendencies to note choices to get the sound just right. The same approach was taken with lyrics, with AI studying several different songs to “learn” the artist’s writing style.

Though the project is a fascinating use of AI, it also has a deeper purpose: bringing to light the need for mental health. The effort is being spearheaded by the organization Over the Bridge, which provides mental health assistance for those in the music industry. Over the Bridge board member Sean O’Connor told Rolling Stone the music industry has a tendency to normalize and romanticize depression, and this project aims to ask the question: “What if all these musicians that we love had mental health support?”

Astronauts Really Could Carry M16s on the Moon

In For All Mankind, U.S. Marines pack heat in space. That could happen in real life, too—with a catch.

YOUTUBE/APPLE TV+

  • The second season of the Apple TV+ series For All Mankind shows U.S. Marines in space using M16s.
  • Astronauts probably wouldn’t use real M16s in space—but they could still use guns.
  • Low gravity and crazy temperature swings would make traditional guns inoperable in space.

The Apple TV+ sci-fi series For All Mankind, set against the backdrop of the Cold War, just introduced a new element: space guns.

The ongoing second season of the acclaimed series, which imagines an alternate history in which the Soviets beat NASA to the moon and the global space race never ended, depicts spacefaring U.S. troops using M16s. In real life, however, a weapon like the M16 would be extremely difficult to operate in space.

Using weapons in the extremes of space, including wild temperature swings and low gravity, would present challenges for both those who design and carry the weapons.

In For All Mankind, NASA, stung by its crushing defeat in the space race, redoubles its efforts to take the lead against the Soviets. That includes sending women into the Apollo program and building a giant, sea-launched cargo rocket called “Sea Dragon.”This content is imported from YouTube. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

By the 1980s, the first American lunar colony, Jamestown, is firmly established on the moon, supplied by regular Space Shuttle missions. The seizure of an American lithium mine by Soviet cosmonauts triggers the deployment of five U.S. Marines to the Jamestown colony, all armed with space versions of the M16A2 rifle.

The M16 was obviously designed to function on Earth, in Earth gravity, within a band of temperatures normally found on Earth. The rifle can work in deserts in temperatures of 100 degrees Fahrenheit or higher and in “extreme cold weather,” the U.S. Army says. (That’s as specific as it gets.)

While those conditions seem broad by Earth standards, in space, it’s a different story.

Gravity itself will vary, from zero-gravity conditions far from planetary bodies to one-sixth of Earth’s gravity on the moon. Temperatures on the moon can swing wildly, from a high of 260 degrees Fahrenheit to minus 280 degrees.

gi on patrol

A U.S. soldier with the 1st Cavalry Division on patrol, Vietnam, 1971.CHRISTOPHER JENSENGETTY IMAGES

Gravity would affect all aspects of the M16, from how bullets are seated in the magazine to how the buffer spring would bounce the bolt carrier group back and forth inside the weapon. The internal action of the M16 is precisely timed, and a change in gravity would throw everything off.

Changing the mass of various internal parts, spring weights, and even the type and amount of gunpowder used might make a lunar M16 workable—but it would require a lot of testing under lunar conditions. One concern: The M16 uses gunpowder gases to cycle the weapon. Just how would that hot, pressurized gunpowder gas behave in low gravity?This content is imported from {embed-name}. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

Bullets in principle should work fine, since they use their own propellant and don’t rely on oxygen. But again, the big issue here would be gravity.

Under Earth gravity, an M16 bullet starts a slow, inexorable drop as soon as it exits the barrel, one that eventually ends up with the bullet plowing into the ground. Earth’s gravitational influence means a terrestrial M16 bullet will drop 24 inches at 400 yards. While a bullet fired under lunar gravity would still eventually plow into the lunar soil, at one-sixth gravity, the same bullet would fly a flatter, steadier trajectory for far longer.

There’s no wind in space or on the moon, so there would be no need to calculate for windage at longer ranges. At 400 yards, wind at 10 miles per hour will blow an M16 bullet 21 inches off course—enough to miss a man-sized target. A lack of wind will make it easier to hit a target, at least in the horizontal axis.

soldier in the saudi desert

The M16 can work in Earth environments as diverse as searing deserts and freezing tundra, but that’s nothing compared to conditions on the moon.HISTORICALGETTY IMAGES

Temperatures would prove to be another challenge. Engineers could probably develop a lubricant that operates within a 500-degree band, but Space Marines would need to be careful with their rate of fire. A gun already heated to 280 degrees Fahrenheit would start to have heat issues more quickly than one on Earth, including bullet propellant igniting in the chamber before the trigger is pulled (“cooking off”) and even melting rifle parts.

And then there’s a problem totally unique to the moon: moon dust. The dust, a fine coating of lunar soil found up to 60 miles above the moon’s surface, could get into a rifle’s internals and cause it to jam. The M16 is particularly vulnerable to jamming, and is even equipped with a dust cover to prevent dust, dirt, and sand from entering the weapon before it’s fired. How would you keep moon dust out of an M16 during combat?RELATED STORYEverything You Actually Need to Know About Guns

For All Mankind does give the space M16s some thought. On the show, the rifles are white and silver, colors that let them blend in with the moon dust, and they’re equipped with collapsing stocks and optical sights.

Real M16s in the 1980s featured fixed stocks and lacked optical sights. Collapsing stocks would be more ergonomic for shooters in large, bulky spacesuits. The raised optical sight, meanwhile, would be easier for an astronaut in a space suit to use, but a laser sight would allow the space shooter to shoot accurately without aiming.

m16 for all mankind

A space M16.YOUTUBE/APPLE

Our reality has been spared a world with space rifles, but with the establishment of the Space Force and the increasing militarization of space, it seems inevitable that small arms will eventually make their way into space and beyond.

First interstellar comet may be the most pristine ever found

First interstellar comet may be the most pristine ever found
This image was taken with the FORS2 instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope in late 2019, when comet 2I/Borisov passed near the Sun. Since the comet was travelling at breakneck speed, around 175 000 kilometres per hour, the background stars appeared as streaks of light as the telescope followed the comet’s trajectory. The colours in these streaks give the image some disco flair and are the result of combining observations in different wavelength bands, highlighted by the various colours in this composite image. Credit: ESO/O. Hainaut

New observations with the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (ESO’s VLT) indicate that the rogue comet 2I/Borisov, which is only the second and most recently detected interstellar visitor to our Solar System, is one of the most pristine ever observed. Astronomers suspect that the comet most likely never passed close to a star, making it an undisturbed relic of the cloud of gas and dust it formed from.

2I/Borisov was discovered by amateur astronomer Gennady Borisov in August 2019 and was confirmed to have come from beyond the Solar System a few weeks later. “2I/Borisov could represent the first truly pristine comet ever observed,” says Stefano Bagnulo of the Armagh Observatory and Planetarium, Northern Ireland, UK, who led the new study published today in Nature Communications. The team believes that the comet had never passed close to any star before it flew by the Sun in 2019.

Bagnulo and his colleagues used the FORS2 instrument on ESO’s VLT, located in northern Chile, to study 2I/Borisov in detail using a technique called polarimetry. Since this technique is regularly used to study comets and other small bodies of our Solar System, this allowed the team to compare the interstellar visitor with our local comets.

The team found that 2I/Borisov has polarimetric properties distinct from those of Solar System comets, with the exception of Hale-Bopp. Comet Hale-Bopp received much public interest in the late 1990s as a result of being easily visible to the naked eye, and also because it was one of the most pristine comets astronomers had ever seen. Prior to its most recent passage, Hale-Bopp is thought to have passed by our Sun only once and had therefore barely been affected by solar wind and radiation. This means it was pristine, having a composition very similar to that of the cloud of gas and dust it—and the rest of the Solar System—formed from some 4.5 billion years ago.

By analysing the polarisation together with the colour of the comet to gather clues on its composition, the team concluded that 2I/Borisov is in fact even more pristine than Hale-Bopp. This means it carries untarnished signatures of the cloud of gas and dust it formed from.

“The fact that the two comets are remarkably similar suggests that the environment in which 2I/Borisov originated is not so different in composition from the environment in the early Solar System,” says Alberto Cellino, a co-author of the study, from the Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy.

Olivier Hainaut, an astronomer at ESO in Germany who studies comets and other near-Earth objects but was not involved in this new study, agrees. “The main result—that 2I/Borisov is not like any other comet except Hale-Bopp—is very strong,” he says, adding that “it is very plausible they formed in very similar conditions.”

“The arrival of 2I/Borisov from interstellar space represented the first opportunity to study the composition of a comet from another planetary system and check if the material that comes from this comet is somehow different from our native variety,” explains Ludmilla Kolokolova, of the University of Maryland in the US, who was involved in the Nature Communications research.

Bagnulo hopes astronomers will have another, even better, opportunity to study a rogue comet in detail before the end of the decade. “ESA is planning to launch Comet Interceptor in 2029, which will have the capability of reaching another visiting interstellar object, if one on a suitable trajectory is discovered,” he says, referring to an upcoming mission by the European Space Agency.

An origin story hidden in the dust

Even without a space mission, astronomers can use Earth’s many telescopes to gain insight into the different properties of rogue comets like 2I/Borisov. “Imagine how lucky we were that a comet from a system light-years away simply took a trip to our doorstep by chance,” says Bin Yang, an astronomer at ESO in Chile, who also took advantage of 2I/Borisov’s passage through our Solar System to study this mysterious comet. Her team’s results are published in Nature Astronomy.

Yang and her team used data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), in which ESO is a partner, as well as from ESO’s VLT, to study 2I/Borisov’s dust grains to gather clues about the comet’s birth and conditions in its home system.

They discovered that 2I/Borisov’s coma—an envelope of dust surrounding the main body of the comet—contains compact pebbles, grains about one millimetre in size or larger. In addition, they found that the relative amounts of carbon monoxide and water in the comet changed drastically as it neared the Sun. The team, which also includes Olivier Hainaut, says this indicates that the comet is made up of materials that formed in different places in its planetary system.

The observations by Yang and her team suggest that matter in 2I/Borisov’s planetary home was mixed from near its star to further out, perhaps because of the existence of giant planets, whose strong gravity stirs material in the system. Astronomers believe that a similar process occurred early in the life of our Solar System.

While 2I/Borisov was the first rogue comet to pass by the Sun, it was not the first interstellar visitor. The first interstellar object to have been observed passing by our Solar System was ‘Oumuamua, another object studied with ESO’s VLT back in 2017. Originally classified as a comet, ‘Oumuamua was later reclassified as an asteroid as it lacked a coma.

Prof. Brian Greene Shows You How to Time Travel!

Prof. Brian Greene, author of “The Elegant Universe” will show you the right way to time travel as he joins Faith in a discussion of the underlying science of time travel and clears up some time travel myths like, is it ok to interact with your younger self while time traveling? (Turns out, it’s OKAY.)

Acclaimed physicist Brian Greene reveals a mind-boggling reality beneath the surface of our everyday world.

“The Fabric of the Cosmos,” a four-hour series based on the book by renowned physicist and author Brian Greene, takes us to the frontiers of physics to see how scientists are piecing together the most complete picture yet of space, time, and the universe. With each step, audiences will discover that just beneath the surface of our everyday experience lies a world we’d hardly recognize—a startling world far stranger and more wondrous than anyone expected.

Brian Greene is going to let you in on a secret: We’ve all been deceived. Our perceptions of time and space have led us astray. Much of what we thought we knew about our universe—that the past has already happened and the future is yet to be, that space is just an empty void, that our universe is the only universe that exists—just might be wrong.

Interweaving provocative theories, experiments, and stories with crystal-clear explanations and imaginative metaphors like those that defined the groundbreaking and highly acclaimed series “The Elegant Universe,” “The Fabric of the Cosmos” aims to be the most compelling, visual, and comprehensive picture of modern physics ever seen on television.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/series/the-fabric-of-the-cosmos/

‘Odd’ lights spotted in North Carolina sky prompts several theories

The strange lights were seen floating over the state’s Indian Trail community

Could it be?

A mysterious light cluster was spotted in the night sky near Charlotte, N.C., over the weekend, leading to a debate on social media over the possible presence of UFOs in the area, according to a report. 

The strange lights were seen floating over the state’s Indian Trail community and subsequently posted on the “What’s Up Indian Trail?” community Facebook page.

“Anyone know what these lights were tonight?” Alisa Homewood remarked, according to The Charlotte Observer. “No sound at all. They flickered like lanterns, but followed the same exact path up until they disappeared which was odd.”

“My initial thought when I saw the lights was it was the helicopters in the distance, but as the lights got closer there was no sound. Then they went straight up into the sky and disappeared. No smoke, no debris,” she continued.

A few hundred people have since reacted to her post on the community page, offering different opinions for the odd phenomenon, ranging from UFOs to a SpaceX rocket, according to the paper

One of her photos captured a glowing trio of blue lights, which Homewood apparently could not explain. 

“The blue light I didn’t notice until after I took the pictures. In the sky it did not look blue, it looked like a group of bright lights,” she said, according to Charlotte Observer reporter, Mark Price. “I thought it was odd though, that a few people have seen and photographed that same blue-ish grouping of lights.”

The sighting comes as the CIA’s recently decided to declassify more than three decades worth of UFO documents, which one expert called a “real-life X-Files.” 2020 was also arguably the best year ever for UFO coverage.

What’s the Color of the Universe?

The universe is a pretty mesmerizing place. From all of the natural wonders here on earth to the Tesla roadster flying through our galaxy, there’s certainly not a lack of wonder surrounding us. All this amazement naturally leads us to one prominent question, “what color is it?”

Okay, well, maybe that’s just me, but a group of researchers has solidly confirmed what color the universe is. Are you ready for it? It’s beige. But not just any beige, the color of the universe is named “Cosmic Latte”. A team of astronomers from Johns Hopkins University gave the universe’s color that name in 2002 after running a series of tests collecting massive amounts of light samples.

Initially, in 2001, the researchers thought that the universe was a slightly less attractive greenish white, but in 2002, they issued a correction claiming that the light from 200,000 studied galaxies averaged together comes out to a beige-ish white. And, if you were wondering what the hex triplet value for this “beige-ish white” is, it’s #FFF8E7. All images and videos courtesy of the creative commons or used in accordance with fair use laws.

Nostradamus’ predictions for 2021: Asteroids, zombies and a bad outlook

Nostradamus’ predictions for 2021: 
Asteroids, zombies and a bad outlook.

And you thought it couldn’t get any worse?

World-ending asteroids, zombies and ruinous famine are on deck for 2021, according to French philosopher Michel de Nostradamus, whose track record for predicting the future has been freakishly accurate.

Nostradamus, who died in 1566, has famously prophesied calamitous events through his “Les Prophéties,” a collection of poetic quatrains. The Renaissance-era seer alluded to such events as the French Revolution, the development of the atomic bomb and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.

Now, close readers of his work say he foresaw a 2021 even more destructive than this hellscape of a year.

In his writings, he mentions “Few young people: half-dead to give a start.” This can only mean one thing, according to Yearly-Horoscope: a zombie apocalypse.

“Fathers and mothers dead of infinite sorrows / Women in mourning, the pestilent she−monster: / The Great One to be no more, all the world to end,” the philosopher went on, ominously.

Nostradamus also appears to allude to the coronavirus pandemic of 2020 — but writes that the following year will be even more destructive, perhaps bringing famine to the world. Already, the pandemic has resulted in millions of Americans heading to food banks for the first time. And the UN has warned that food insecurity will be an even bigger problem in 2021.

“After great trouble for humanity, a greater one is prepared,” Nostradamus wrote. “The Great Mover renews the ages: / Rain, blood, milk, famine, steel, and plague, / Is the heavens fire seen, a long spark running.”

Next up? An asteroid: “In the sky, one sees fire and a long trail of sparks.” Already, we’ve had a few close calls — on Christmas Day, a huge asteroid zipped right past Earth. In November, a pickup-size asteroid squeaked by our planet about 250 miles over the southern Pacific on Friday the 13th.

However, historians often point out that Nostradamus’ writings are incredibly vague — or even downright nonexistent. So take heart. Things could actually get better next year.

Tony Robbins puts money behind Cape Canaveral space balloon business

The company says it will offer “opportunities for groundbreaking research and life-changing travel experiences for off-world travels.”

Self-hep guru Tony Robbins is reportedly putting some of his money behind a Cape Canaveral start-up that wants to send people to space onboard balloons.

The company, Space Perspective, announced Wednesday in a press release that it has secured $7 million “for the development and early flights of Spaceship Neptune to the edge of space.”

A high-performance space balloon with a pressurized capsule.  (Space Perspective)

“The infusion of capital advances the human space flight company another step closer to fundamentally changing the way people have access to space for research and tourism,” the statement read.

Space Perspective said it chose investors who are the “cutting edge of venture capital.” Among its investors is Robbins.

“My life is dedicated to delivering people extraordinary experiences that expand human consciousness,” Robbins said in a press release. “I always say a belief is a poor substitute for an experience and Jane and Taber’s work at Space Perspective will deliver a life-changing experience to people across the world and help us all realize that we are part of a human family sharing this remarkable planet.”

According to the company, the “space balloon” uses a pressurized capsule technology that “gently travels to and from the edge of space over a six-hour period.”

The company says it will offer “opportunities for groundbreaking research and life-changing travel experiences for off-world travels.”

It’s first flight, Neptune 1, is scheduled around the end of the first quarter 2021 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility.

What does Saturn sound like from space?

THE sound collected by a spacecraft passing between Saturn and its rings has been beamed back to Earth – and it’s left scientists perplexed.

Nasa’s Cassini spacecraft dived between Saturn and its innermost ring – an area no man-made object has visited before.

 A stunning image of Saturn taken by Nasa's Cassini spacecraft in 2014
A stunning image of Saturn taken by Nasa’s Cassini spacecraft in 2014Credit: Cover Images

Scientists were excited to hear what Cassini had to offer, but were surprised to be met with an eerie silence.

“The region between the rings and Saturn is ‘the big empty,’ apparently,” said Cassini Project Manager Earl Maize of Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“Cassini will stay the course, while the scientists work on the mystery of why the dust level is much lower than expected.”

 These graphs show the difference in sound taken near Saturn's rings in December 2016 and April 2017
These graphs show the difference in sound taken near Saturn’s rings in December 2016 and April 2017
 Artist's impression of Cassini above Saturn's northern hemisphere before making one of its Grand Finale dives
Artist’s impression of Cassini above Saturn’s northern hemisphere before making one of its Grand Finale dives
 Cassini is taking 22 dives between Saturn's rings before it will crash into the planet on its final mission
Cassini is taking 22 dives between Saturn’s rings before it will crash into the planet on its final mission
 This image was made by the Cassini spacecraft in 2006 and shows two of Saturn's moons
This image was made by the Cassini spacecraft in 2006 and shows two of Saturn’s moonsCredit: AP:Associated Press

The “sounds” of Saturn’s rings are actually particles of dust that can be heard by the spacecraft’s plasma detector.

Back in late 2016, Nasa recorded lots of dust particle noises.

But just months later, the mysterious planet has gone silent.

Instead of crackling, which can be heard in the first minute and 18 seconds in the video above, the April recordings are eerily quiet.

It should be full of popping sounds from dust particles bouncing off each other.

‘A GRAND FINALE’

Dr Daniel Brown, an astronomy expert at Nottingham Trent University, said: “The 13-year Cassini mission is now coming to an end with its grand finale.

“The space probe has revealed many surprises about Saturn and its moons, including further evidence of life-supporting conditions in the ocean below the surface of Enceladus.

“The mission will end with a controlled crash into Saturn in three months’ time, but in the meantime it has started with the first of 22 stunning orbits diving in between Saturn and its rings.

Something which has never been done and is also quite risky.

“As an astronomer, I have been amazed by the rings around Saturn from a young age.

“These dives might just be the thing that can tell us more about how old these rings are and how they work.

“What is particularly interesting is that they are amazingly bright, as if the ice has not been covered by meteorite dust, but we’ll see today what more Cassini tells us.”

Instead, it sounds more like static from a TV screen and an unexplained whistling noise.

Nasa claims the whistling is a type of plasma wave which they will investigate further.

“It was a bit disorienting — we weren’t hearing what we expected to hear,” Cassini scientist William Kurth said.

Cassini has spent 12 years monitoring Saturn, but is scheduled to crash onto the planet in September, after completing its final mission.

SpaceX plans to race remote-controlled cars on the moon in 2021, and has drafted in a legendary Ferrari designer to help

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SpaceX founder Elon Musk 
  • Elon Musk’s SpaceX plans to launch vehicles designed by Frank Stephenson — of McLaren, Ferrari, and BMW fame — onto the Moon’s surface for a remote-controlled car rally.
  • The cars will be sent into space on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket in October 2021, SpaceX said.
  • The vehicles will be partially designed, built, and raced by two teams of high-school students.
  • Moon Mark, an entertainment and education company, is teaming up with aerospace companies Intuitive Machines and Lunar Outpost to organize the car race.

SpaceX wants to race remote-controlled cars on the surface of the Moon.

Elon Musk’s aerospace company plans to launch the vehicles in October 2021 aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.

It has enlisted legendary designer Frank Stephenson — known for his work at BMW, Ferrari, Maserati, McLaren, and others — to help design the cars.

The two vehicles will be partially designed, built, and raced by two teams of high school students, according to a statement published in November.

They will be carried in a Nova-C lunar lander made by Intuitive Machines.

The race is being organized by Moon Mark, a multimedia and education content company, which partnered with aerospace company Intuitive Machines. Space tech firm Lunar Outpost also joined the race partnership on November 17, the statement said.

Stephenson accepted the appointment as the race design director for Moon Mark Mission 2021 in November.

Those students racing the cars had to first earn the reward.

On July 14, Moon Mark announced that two teams of high school students had created valid car designs in just four weeks: “Team Atlas” is from Buenos Aires, and “Team Ilstar” comes from Shanghai.

The challenges they faced included drone and autonomous vehicle racing, e-gaming, and a space commercialization entrepreneurship contest, according to a statement.

“The two top teams from the qualifying rounds will win a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to build and race two vehicles on the Moon,” the companies said.

They will now work with Stephenson, an automotive designer, to create a vehicle that they will speed across the moon’s surface.

“This is a project helping to develop the innovators of the future, allowing them to dream big and realize that nothing is impossible,” Stephenson said in a statement.

“Space is a fascinating place, remaining untapped for budding designers and I’m very much looking forward to sharing some of my knowledge to those involved in this innovative project,” he added.

Mary L. Hagy, Moon Mark Founder and CEO said: “His extraordinary experience and talents in automotive and aerospace design will bring insight and inspiration to our young innovators.”

On November 25, SpaceX launched a Falcon 9 rocket for the 100th time, delivering 60 Starlink internet satellites into orbit.

It was also the company’s 23rd flight of the year and the rocket’s seventh successful launch — the most SpaceX has achieved for any individual Falcon 9 rocket.

Spectacular ‘Christmas Star’ will appear for the first time in 800 years

If you had to describe 2020, you probably wouldn’t say that it was the year the planets aligned. That phrase is reserved for use in good times, and the past year hasn’t been a lucky one for most.

But while things haven’t exactly fallen into place for 2020 thanks to the pandemic, we will be closing the year off with a spectacular space show in which everything lines up just right. Later this month, two planets in our solar system will align, creating a double planet for the first time in 800 years.

Perhaps planets aligning is a good omen for 2021? Either way, it’s a rare event and you need to make plans to watch. Otherwise, you’ll have to wait around for another 400 years for it to happen again. Here’s what you need to know.

The planets are finally going to align

Want to watch a double planet in action? Look up at the sky just after sunset on the evening of Dec. 21, and you will see a rare alignment of Jupiter and Saturn take place. That evening, the two planets will appear closer together than they have been since the Middle Ages.

Planets in our solar system only align every 20 years or so, and the last time these two planets were this close together was on March 4, 1226. In other words, these planets won’t align again in your lifetime.

This event won’t just align Saturn and Jupiter, either. It will make the two planets will look like one single point of bright light in the sky. But while the event will make Saturn and Jupiter look like they’re a double planet, the gaseous planets are still going to be hundreds of millions of miles apart, according to NASA.

The event has been dubbed “the great conjunction,” a nod to Jupiter and Saturn being the biggest gas giants in our solar system.

There has been quite the intergalactic build-up to the big show. Jupiter and Saturn have been making moves to approach each other since the summer, slowly inching closer together months before the final show.

How to watch the planetary display in action

Want to check out the show? Dec. 21 will be the optimal time for seeing the double planet. However, the two planets are actually going to be separated by less than the diameter of a full moon from Dec. 16 to Dec. 25, so you may want to gaze up at the sky a few days before the finale.

You’ll need to use a telescope or binoculars to view the planets, but you’ll get a bonus show, too. Not only will the Saturn and Jupiter double planet be visible, but so will several of their largest moons.

You’ll have the best vantage point if you’re in a location near the equator. Don’t panic if you’re in a different spot, though. You can still see the event from anywhere on Earth as long as the weather is good.

The best time to see this happen is in the western sky shortly after sunset. The phenomenon will be visible for about an hour after the sun goes down, so grab your telescope and head outside right after the sun sets.

If you miss it, your only other shot at catching Jupiter and Saturn this close together will be on March 15, 2080 — and the planets will be much higher in the night sky, making the view less accessible to sky-watchers on planet Earth. If you miss that show, you won’t get another shot until after the year 2400.

Physics suggests that the future has already happened

Our intuition tells us that the future can be changed, but Einstein’s theory of relativity suggests that there is no real difference between the future and the past.

The future, present and past may actually not be as different as we think, says science writer and astrophysicist Adam Becker. He explains this mind-bending idea to Michael Marshall and Melissa Hogenboom, with help from the animators at Pomona Pictures.