Physicists Finally Narrowed Down the Mass of the Tiniest ‘Ghost Particle’ in the Universe

This photo shows the inside of a cylindrical antineutrino detector designed to detect the rare fundamental particles.

(Image: © Roy Kaltschmidt photo, LBNL)

We’re full of neutrinos all the time. They’re everywhere, nearly undetectable, flitting through normal matter. We barely know anything about them — not even how heavy they are. But we do know that neutrinos have the potential to alter the shape of the entire universe. And because they have that power, we can use the shape of the universe to weigh them — as a team of physicists has now done.

Because of physics, the behaviors of the smallest particles alter the behaviors of whole galaxies and other giant celestial structures. And if you want to describe the behavior of the universe, your have to take into account properties of its tiniest components. In a new paper, which will be published in a forthcoming issue of the journal Physical Review Letters, researchers used that fact to back-calculate the mass of the lightest neutrino (there are three neutrino masses) from precise measurements of the large-scale structure of the universe.

They took data about the movements of roughly 1.1 million galaxies from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey , stirred it up with other cosmological information and results from much smaller-scale neutrino experiments on Earth, and fed all that information into a supercomputer.Click here for more videos…CLOSEVolume 0%This video will resume in 5 seconds 

“We used more than half a million computing hours to process the data,” study co-author Andrei Cuceu, a doctoral student in astrophysics at University College London, said in a statement. “This is equivalent to almost 60 years on a single processor. This project pushed the limits for big data analysis in cosmology.”

The result didn’t offer a fixed number for the mass of the lightest type of neutrino, but it did narrow it down: That species of neutrino has a mass no greater than 0.086 electron volts (eV), or about six million times less than the mass of a single electron.

That number sets an upper bound, but not a lower bound, for the mass of the lightest species of neutrino. It’s possible that it doesn’t have any mass at all, the authors wrote in the paper.

What physicists do know is that at least two of the three species of neutrinohave to have some mass, and that there’s a relationship between their masses. (This paper also sets an upper boundary for the combined mass of all three flavors: 0.26 eV.)

Confusingly, the three mass species of neutrino don’t line up with the three flavors of neutrino: electron, muon and tau. According to Fermilab, each flavor of neutrino is made up of a quantum mixture of the three mass species. So a certain tau neutrino has a bit of mass species 1 in it, a bit of species 2 and a bit of species 3. Those different mass species allow the neutrinos to jump back and forth between flavors, as a 1998 discovery (which won the Nobel Prize in physics) showed.

Physicists may never perfectly pinpoint the masses of the three neutrino species, but they can keep getting closer. The mass will keep getting narrowed down as experiments on Earth and measurements in space improve, the authors wrote. And the better physicists can measure these tiny, omnipresent components of our universe the better physics will be able to explain how the whole thing fits together.

We’re full of neutrinos all the time. They’re everywhere, nearly undetectable, flitting through normal matter. We barely know anything about them — not even how heavy they are. But we do know that neutrinos have the potential to alter the shape of the entire universe. And because they have that power, we can use the shape of the universe to weigh them — as a team of physicists has now done.

Because of physics, the behaviors of the smallest particles alter the behaviors of whole galaxies and other giant celestial structures. And if you want to describe the behavior of the universe, your have to take into account properties of its tiniest components. In a new paper, which will be published in a forthcoming issue of the journal Physical Review Letters, researchers used that fact to back-calculate the mass of the lightest neutrino (there are three neutrino masses) from precise measurements of the large-scale structure of the universe.

They took data about the movements of roughly 1.1 million galaxies from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey , stirred it up with other cosmological information and results from much smaller-scale neutrino experiments on Earth, and fed all that information into a supercomputer.

“We used more than half a million computing hours to process the data,” study co-author Andrei Cuceu, a doctoral student in astrophysics at University College London, said in a statement. “This is equivalent to almost 60 years on a single processor. This project pushed the limits for big data analysis in cosmology.”

The result didn’t offer a fixed number for the mass of the lightest type of neutrino, but it did narrow it down: That species of neutrino has a mass no greater than 0.086 electron volts (eV), or about six million times less than the mass of a single electron.

That number sets an upper bound, but not a lower bound, for the mass of the lightest species of neutrino. It’s possible that it doesn’t have any mass at all, the authors wrote in the paper.

What physicists do know is that at least two of the three species of neutrinohave to have some mass, and that there’s a relationship between their masses. (This paper also sets an upper boundary for the combined mass of all three flavors: 0.26 eV.)

Confusingly, the three mass species of neutrino don’t line up with the three flavors of neutrino: electron, muon and tau. According to Fermilab, each flavor of neutrino is made up of a quantum mixture of the three mass species. So a certain tau neutrino has a bit of mass species 1 in it, a bit of species 2 and a bit of species 3. Those different mass species allow the neutrinos to jump back and forth between flavors, as a 1998 discovery (which won the Nobel Prize in physics) showed.

Physicists may never perfectly pinpoint the masses of the three neutrino species, but they can keep getting closer. The mass will keep getting narrowed down as experiments on Earth and measurements in space improve, the authors wrote. And the better physicists can measure these tiny, omnipresent components of our universe the better physics will be able to explain how the whole thing fits together.

Scientists are building a real-life version of the Starship Enterprise’s life scanner

The Starship Enterprise in the original 'Star Trek' series.

The Starship Enterprise in the original ‘Star Trek’ series. (AP)

When the crewmembers of the Starship Enterprise pull into orbit around a new planet, one of the first things they do is scan for life-forms. Here in the real world, researchers have long been trying to figure out how to unambiguously detect signs of life on distant exoplanets.

They are now one step closer to this goal, thanks to a new remote-sensing technique that relies on a quirk of biochemistry causing light to spiral in a particular direction and produce a fairly unmistakable signal. The method, described in a recent paper published in the journal Astrobiology, could be used aboard space-based observatories and help scientists learn if the universe contains living beings like ourselves.

In recent years, remote-life detection has become a topic of immense interest as astronomers have begun to capture light from planets orbiting other stars, which can be analyzed to determine what kind of chemicals those worlds contain. Researchers would like to figure out some indicator that could definitively tell them whether or not they are looking at a living biosphere.

For instance, the presence of excessive oxygen in an exoplanet’s atmosphere might be a good hint that something is breathing on its surface. But there are plenty of ways that nonliving processes can generate oxygen molecules and trick remote observers into believing a world is teeming with life.

Therefore, some researchers have suggested looking for chains of organic molecules. These living chemicals come in two arrangements — a right-handed and a left-handed version that are like mirror-flipped images of each other. In the wild, nature produces equal amounts of these right- and left-handed molecules.

“Biology breaks this symmetry,” Frans Snik, an astronomer at Leiden University in the Netherlands and co-author of the new paper, told Live Science. “This is the difference between chemistry and biology.”

On Earth, living creatures select one molecular “hand” and stick with it. The amino acids that make up the proteins in your body are all left-handed versions of their respective molecules.

When light interacts with long chains of these different-handed arrangements, it becomes circularly polarized, meaning that its electromagnetic waves will travel in either clockwise or counterclockwise spirals. Inorganic molecules won’t generally impart this property to rays of light.

In previous work published online in the preprint journal arXiv, Snik and his colleagues looked at freshly picked English ivy leaves in their lab and watched as the chlorophyll (a green pigment) created circularly polarized light. As the leaves decayed, the circular polarization signal grew weaker and weaker, until it entirely disappeared.

The next step was to test the technique in the field, and so the researchers took an instrument that detects such polarity to the roof of their building at Leiden University and aimed it at a nearby sports field. They were perplexed to see no circularly polarized light, Snik said, until they realized that this was one of the few sports fields in the Netherlands using artificial grass. When the researchers aimed their detector at a forest a few miles away, the circularly polarized signal came through loud and clear.

The million-dollar question is whether or not organisms on another world would exhibit a similar favoritism for single-handed molecules, Snik said. He believes it is a fairly good bet, since carbon-based chemicals best fit together when they all share the same handedness.

His team is now designing an instrument that could be flown to the International Space Station and map the circular polarization signal of Earth to better understand how an analogous signature might look in the light of a distant planet.

That will be an extreme but worthwhile challenge, Edward Schwieterman, an astronomer and astrobiologist at the University of California, Riverside who was not involved in the work, told Live Science. Capturing an exoplanet’s light means blocking out the light from its parent star, which is usually around 10 billion times brighter, he added. If the world is alive, only a tiny fraction of its light will contain the circular polarization signal.

“The signal is small, but the level of ambiguity is also small,” Schwieterman said, making the method useful despite its difficulty.

Future enormous space-based telescopes, such as the Large UV Optical Infrared Surveyor(LUVOIR) observatory, might be able to tease out this faint signature. LUVOIR is still just a concept, but would have a mirror diameter six times wider than the one in the Hubble Space Telescope and could probably fly in the mid-2030s, officials estimate.

Snik thinks the circular polarization technique could also be brought to bear closer to home, on an instrument flown to potentially habitable moons in the outer solar system such as Europa or Enceladus. By aiming such a detector at these frozen worlds, scientists might see the signal of living creatures.

“Maybe our first detection of extraterrestrial life will be in our backyard,” said Snik.

Scientists Discover 2nd Alien Planet Around Star Beta Pictoris — and It’s Huge

An artist's depiction of the newly discovered planet Beta Pictoris c, top left, as seen with its solar system neighbor Beta Pictoris b and backlit by the star itself.

An artist’s depiction of the newly discovered planet Beta Pictoris c, top left, as seen with its solar system neighbor Beta Pictoris b and backlit by the star itself.(Image: © P Rubini/AM Lagrange)

The solar system around a star called Beta Pictoris was already a pretty interesting place, with a large planet scientists have actually seen and a huge amount of rubble flying around. But it just got even more intriguing.

That’s because astronomers now think they’ve picked up on a second planet orbiting the nearby star. The discovery is based on more than 10 years of data about miniscule changes in the star’s orbit caused by the gravitational tug between the star and what scientists now believe to be a planet.

The Beta Pictoris solar system is a special one for scientists because it is fairly close to Earth, at just 63.4 light-years away, and relatively young, at about 23 million years old. That means scientists can study it to better understand the tumultuous adolescence of developing solar systems.

From what scientists knew before the new research, Beta Pictoris’ adolescence already looked awfully messy. 

A disk of planetary rubble clutters the outer reaches of this solar system; astronomers think hunks of rock called planetesimals ricocheting into each other continues to create that debris. Those planetesimals fill the solar system from 50 astronomical units (or AU, the average distance from Earth to our sun) away from Beta Pictoris out to 100 AU. One AU is about 93 million miles, or 150 million kilometers.Click here for more videos…Giant Exoplanet Rotates 36X Faster Than EarthVolume 0%

About a decade ago, astronomers identified a large planet, nine to 13 times more massive than Jupiter and dubbed Beta Pictoris b, orbiting about 9 AU from the star. Unusual for exoplanets, this one has been imaged; typically, worlds are identified as shadows passing over a star’s disk or as tiny wobbles in the star’s location. And scientists have even spotted exocomets darting across the Beta Pictoris system, slowly losing steam as they go.

But astronomers combing through 10 years of data gathered by the European Southern Observatory’s High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) program realized that what they knew about the Beta Pictoris solar system still didn’t quite add up.Click here for more videos…Colliding Comets May Be Hiding Alien PlanetVolume 0%

HARPS measures tiny changes in a star’s light caused by slight movements of the star as its gravity interacts with that of a planet. For a star like Beta Pictoris, which regularly grows and shrinks, those tiny changes are very difficult to parse out from these pulses, but that is precisely what the team behind the new research did.

The astronomers were left with signals that they believe can be explained only by a second planet, one that is about nine times the mass of Jupiter and orbits its star once every 1,200 or so days. The planet is about 2.7 AU away from its star, equivalent to the distance from our sun to the asteroid belt.

The researchers said they hope that other techniques will be able to spot the planet, dubbed Beta Pictoris c, as well. This planet may pass directly between its star and Earth, which means scientists could study the world’s atmosphere and any rings or moons that orbit it. If astronomers can directly image Beta Pictoris c, as they have its neighbor, they may also be able to answer questions about how these planets formed.

The research is described in a paper published Monday (Aug. 19) in the journal Nature. 

NASA to explore Jupiter’s moon Europa, which may hold life

NASA has officially confirmed a mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa, a trek that could answer whether the icy celestial body could be habitable for humans and support life.

Known as the Europa Clipper mission, which was originally explored in 2017, the government space agency is now in the phase of completing the final design of the spacecraft that will visit the moon. From there, it will move on to construction and, ultimately, test the spacecraft and science payload.

“We are all excited about the decision that moves the Europa Clipper mission one key step closer to unlocking the mysteries of this ocean world,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, in a statement. “We are building upon the scientific insights received from the flagship Galileo and Cassini spacecraft and working to advance our understanding of our cosmic origin, and even life elsewhere.”

2018 study expressed concerns that Europa’s surface may be extremely porous, which could harm any probe that touches down on its surface.

The space agency said the purpose of the mission will be to investigate whether Europa, the sixth-largest of Jupiter’s 79 known moons, “could harbor conditions suitable for life, honing our insights into astrobiology.”

The conditions on Europa have been previously likened to exoplanet Barnard B, a “super-Earth” 30 trillion miles from Earth. It likely has a surface temperature of roughly 238 degrees below zero and may have oceans underneath its icy surface, according to a July 2018 statement from NASA.

It’s unclear what the oceans on Europa are made up of, but the Hubble Space Telescope detected the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) on its surface, according to a study published in June.

“If this sodium chloride is really reflective of the internal composition, then [Europa’s ocean] might be more Earth-like than we used to think,” the study’s lead author, Samantha Trumbo, told

NASA said its goal for the Europa Clipper mission is to launch as soon as 2023, but it added that its baseline commitment “supports a launch readiness date by 2025.”

‘UFOs’ are coming out of black holes and altering galaxies forever: ‘It’s all very new science’

‘UFOs’ are coming out of black holes and altering galaxies forever

New discoveries lead scientists to believe ‘UFOs’ are coming out of black holes and altering galaxies.

Black holes are still a mysterious force of spacetime, with the first image of one having been released just a few short months ago. Now, a new study suggests that “UFOs” are coming out of them, helping to reshape galaxies along the way.

According to research published in Astronomy and Astrophysics, hot ionized gas — known as an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) — is flying out of supermassive black holes and could help explain why there is nearly empty darkness encompassing the center of several galaxies.

“These winds might explain some surprising correlations that scientists have known about for years but couldn’t explain,” said the study’s lead author, Roberto Serafinelli, in a statement.

Artist's impression showing how ultrafast winds blowing from a supermassive black hole interact with interstellar matter in the host galaxy, clearing its central regions from gas. (Credit: ESA/ATG medialab)

Artist’s impression showing how ultrafast winds blowing from a supermassive black hole interact with interstellar matter in the host galaxy, clearing its central regions from gas. (Credit: ESA/ATG medialab)

“For example, we see a correlation between the masses of supermassive black holes and the velocity dispersion of stars in the inner parts of their host galaxies,” Serafinelli added. “But there is no way this could be due to the gravitational effect of the black hole. Our study, for the first time, shows how these black hole winds impact the galaxy on a larger scale, possibly providing the missing link.”

The scientists were studying galaxy PG 1114+445, which is described as “active,” where they were able to see the UFOs escaping, using the European Space Agency’s X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) telescope.

According to the researchers’ data, the energy from the UFO is being transferred to other winds (such as “warm absorbers”) near the black hole, causing these winds to move at incredible speeds.

“We believe that this is the point when the UFO touches the interstellar matter and sweeps it away like a snowplough,” Serafinelli added. “We call this an ‘entrained ultra-fast outflow’ because the UFO at this stage is penetrating the interstellar matter. It’s similar to wind pushing boats in the sea.”

A “warm absorber” is a slower moving outflow from the black hole, which often travels “at much lower speeds of hundreds of km/s and have similar physical characteristics – such as particle density and ionization – to the surrounding interstellar matter.”

This type of UFO, known as entrained UFO, is rare, Serafinelli noted, adding it’s only the sixth time it has ever been seen and the first time it was seen interacting with the other types of outflows.

“This is the sixth time these outflows have been detected. It’s all very new science,” Serafinelli continued. “These phases of the outflow have previously been observed separately but the connection between them wasn’t clear up until now.”

The discovery of UFOs and the three outflows together is exciting to researchers, but Norbert Schartel, XMM-Newton project scientist at ESA, wants to know whether this is a common occurrence in space or if it was a one-off event.

“Finding one source is great, but knowing that this phenomenon is common in the Universe would be a real breakthrough,” said Schartel. “Even with XMM-Newton, we might be able to find more such sources in the next decade.”

NASA glimpses surface of distant rocky exoplanet

Data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has given scientists a first glimpse into conditions on the surface of a rocky exoplanet beyond the solar system.

Planet LHS 3844b is located 48.6 light-years from Earth and has a radius 1.3 times that of Earth, according to NASA. The exoplanet, which is orbiting a small star called an M dwarf, was first spotted by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey (TESS) in 2018.

A light-year measures distance in space and equals 6 trillion miles.

New research indicates that the mysterious planet’s surface may resemble Earth’s Moon or Mercury, NASA said in a statement released Monday. “The planet likely has little to no atmosphere and could be covered in the same cooled volcanic material found in the dark areas of the Moon’s surface, called mare,” it explained.

Artist's illustration depicts the exoplanet LHS 3844b.

Artist’s illustration depicts the exoplanet LHS 3844b. (Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt [IPAC])

The infrared Spitzer Space Telescope was able to detect light from the surface of LHS 3844b. “The planet makes one full revolution around its parent star in just 11 hours,” NASA said in the statement. “With such a tight orbit, LHS 3844b is most likely ‘tidally locked,’ which is when one side of a planet permanently faces the star. The star-facing side, or dayside, is about 1,410 degrees Fahrenheit (770 degrees Celsius).”

The research study was published in the journal Nature.

“We’ve got lots of theories about how planetary atmospheres fare around M dwarfs, but we haven’t been able to study them empirically,” said Laura Kreidberg, the study’s lead author and a researcher at the Harvard and Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., in the statement. “Now, with LHS 3844b, we have a terrestrial planet outside our solar system where for the first time we can determine observationally that an atmosphere is not present.”

TESS discovered the planet via what is known as the “transit method,” which uses the dimming of a parent star to identify the transit of the objects orbiting it.

The Spitzer Space Telescope studied the planet’s surface reflectiveness. “LHS 3844b appears to be the smallest planet for which scientists have used the light coming from its surface to learn about its atmosphere (or lack thereof),” said NASA, in its statement.

The planet is believed to be covered in basalt, or volcanic rock.

In 2017, NASA announced the discovery of seven Earth-sized planets orbiting the star TRAPPIST-1, nearly 40 light-years away from Earth.

In a separate project, a black hole swallowing a neutron star has likely been detected for the first time, according to scientists.

Tesla Roadster with ‘Starman’ completes first orbit around the sun

Elon Musk’s Tesla Roadster that SpaceX launched into space on their Falcon Heavy rocket last year has completed its first orbit around the sun, according to a tracking report.

If you have somehow forgotten about what is one of the coolest things to happen ever, here’s a quick reminder.

In February 2018, SpaceX launched its first Falcon Heavy rocket and it needed a ‘dummy load’ to send into space in order to demonstrate the capability.

Musk, who is the CEO of both SpaceX and Tesla, decided to launch his own Tesla Roadster.

Due to the higher risk of failure with a brand new rocket, SpaceX didn’t want to put something too valuable, like a satellite, but at the same time, Musk didn’t want to just launch a weight into space.

He figured that launching a Tesla Roadster would be more interesting and inspiring.

They installed the electric car inside the fairings on top of the second stage of the Falcon Heavy rocket:

They also strapped a dummy equipped with a spacesuit in the driver’s seat. They named it ‘Starman’.

On February 6, 2018, Falcon Heavy was successfully launched and it released the Tesla Roadster into space:

It resulted in some stunning images of Starman in the Roadster moving, away from Earth, at a higher speed than any other Tesla before it:

The Tesla Roadster is still moving through space at an extremely high speed and according to the ‘whereisroadster‘ website, which has been tracking the veichle’s trajectory, it has now completed a full orbit around the sun:According to the site, the Roadster is making its way closer to Mars:

“The car is 70,093,131 miles (112,803,994 km, 0.754 AU, 6.27 light minutes) from Mars, moving towardthe planet at a speed of 26,628 mi/h (42,854 km/h, 11.90 km/s).”

It has exceeded warranty’s mileage limit by now/ 

Electrek’s Take

While some saw it as a waste of a good Tesla Roadster or creating space debris, I am a big fan of the project.

I liked it so much that I had Canvaspop make print outs of the Roadster in space from high-res images that SpaceX released on Flickr and display it in my house:

The video of the launch was viewed by millions of people and it inspired many to be interested in space again.

At the same time, it also created some great publicity for Tesla with the Roadster being the first car launched into space.

Now it keeps breaking the record of being the car the furthest away from Earth.

NASA Sun Probe Spies the Solar Wind in 1st Birthday Photo

Now all we need is a candle.

NASA's Parker Solar Probe observed the solar wind streaming past during the spacecraft's first solar encounter in November 2018.

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe observed the solar wind streaming past during the spacecraft’s first solar encounter in November 2018.(Image: © NASA/Naval Research Laboratory/Parker Solar Probe)

This past Monday (Aug. 12), NASA’s newest solar probe celebrated its first year in space and began preparing for another close swoop by the sun.

The Parker Solar Probe will make a close approach on Sept. 1 as it tries to collect information that will help scientists to better understand the forces behind the solar wind, solar flares and other kinds of “space weather” emanating from the sun. The probe has so far completed two close approaches and NASA expects to release data from these flybys later this year.

One of Parker’s main objectives is to investigate what mechanism might be driving extreme heating in the sun’s outermost layer, known as the corona. Scientists are mystified as to why the corona is over a million degrees Fahrenheit (over 555,000 degrees Celsius), while the solar layers below are only a few thousand degrees Fahrenheit each. 

Parker aims to travel multiple times within Mercury’s orbit to find out more. It’s a difficult mission because, since the spacecraft is so close to the sun, the extreme heating requires special shielding so that Parker’s instruments don’t get fried by radiation. Parker’s heat shield is so dense that even a blowtorch doesn’t disturb it. This allows the spacecraft to nestle close to the sun and make valuable observations.

“The data we’re seeing from Parker Solar Probe’s instruments is showing us details about solar structures and processes that we have never seen before,” Nour Raouafi, the project scientist of the Parker Solar Probe mission, said in a statement. “Flying close to the sun — a very dangerous environment — is the only way to obtain this data, and the spacecraft is performing with flying colors.”CLOSEVolume 90%This video will resume in 12 seconds 

NASA also released a new video from Parker that shows the structures of the solar wind — the constant stream of particles emanating from our sun. The 6-second clip shows a bright “streamer,” or a dense flow of solar wind, flowing off the sun, which sits just off-screen. Particles of dust streak across the field of view, backdropped by the planet Mercury (the bright dot in the background) and the Milky Way’s star-filled galactic center. The video is based on data obtained Nov. 6 to 10, 2018.

There Are Thousands of Tardigrades on the Moon. Now What?

Did they survive their crash landing? If so, what happens to them now?

Dehydrated tardigrades that crash-landed on the moon in April won't come back to life anytime soon

Dehydrated tardigrades that crash-landed on the moon in April won’t come back to life anytime soon.

Tardigrades, which live on every continent on Earth, are also (maybe) living on the moon, following the crash of a lunar lander carrying thousands of the microscopic water bears.

Did any of them survive the impact? If they did, what happens to them now?

When the tardigrades were placed on the Israeli moon mission Beresheet, they were in a tun state — dehydrated, with their chubby limbs and heads retracted and all metabolic activity temporarily suspended. Their arrival on the moon was unexpectedly explosive; Beresheet’s crash landing on April 11 may have scattered the microorganisms onto the lunar surface. 

Tubby tardigrades are notoriously tough, but were the Beresheet tardigrades hardy enough to survive that impact? It’s certainly possible that some of them made it to the moon intact. But what would that mean for the moon to have what might be thousands of Earth microbes as new inhabitants? And what might it mean for the tardigrades?

First of all, is anyone in trouble for accidentally spilling tardigrades on the moon? That’s a complicated question, but the short answer is no. Space agencies from around the world follow a decades-old treaty about what is permissible to leave on the moon, and the only explicit prohibitions are against weapons and experiments or tools that could interfere with missions from other agencies, according to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.

In the decades that followed the treaty, other guidelines were created that acknowledged the risks of seeding other worlds with Earth microbes, and these stipulations outlined practices for sterilizing mission equipment to avoid contamination. But even though large space agencies typically follow these rules, there is no single entity enforcing them globally, Live Science previously reported.

Scientists have yet to find any evidence that the moon ever hosted living organisms (other than visiting astronauts and microbial hitchhikers from Earth) that could be threatened by microscopic invaders. However, contamination could carry serious consequences for missions to planets where life might yet be found, such as Mars; experts suggest that one potential consequence of colonizing Mars could be the extermination of native microbial life through exposure to Earth bacteria.Beresheet Spacecraft’s Moon Crash Site Seen by OrbiterVolume 0% 

It’s possible that even before the Beresheet tardigrades crashed on the moon, other forms of terrestrial microbes were already there: gut bacteria in abandoned bags of astronaut poo, said Mark Martin, an associate professor of biology at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington.

“I’d be very surprised if you couldn’t culture a few things out of the center of that freeze-dried material,” Martin told Live Science. “Especially spore-formers. They make a very thick outer layer of their spore proteins that’s known to protect them against dehydration, radiation — a variety of things.”

Sole survivor

Tardigrades survive conditions that would destroy most other organisms; they do so by expelling the water from their bodies and generating compounds that seal and protect the structure of their cells. The creatures can remain in this so-called tun state for months and still revive in the presence of water; scientists even resuscitated two tardigrades from a 30-year deep freeze in 2016.

As a tun, a tardigrade can weather boiling, freezing, high pressure and even the vacuum of space, the European Space Agency (ESA) reported in 2008, after sending water bears into orbit. Ultraviolet radiation turned out to be the tardigrades’ kryptonite, as few of the creatures survived full exposure to UV light during the ESA experiments.

This could be good news for the desiccated Beresheet tardigrades. If they landed in a spot on the moon shielded from UV radiation, the microscopic creatures might stand a chance of survival, Martin said.It’s Alive! ‘Water Bears’ Revived After 30+ Frozen Years | VideoVolume 0% 

“My guess is that if we went up in the next year or so, recovered the wreckage, and found these tiny, little tuns and put them in water, a few of them would come back to life,” he explained. 

But as long as the tardigrades remain on the moon, their chances of spontaneously awakening are low. Without liquid water, the tiny creatures will remain in a tun state, and while there’s evidence of ice on the moon, liquid water is nowhere to be found. 

Even if the lunar tardigrades did somehow encounter liquid water while still on the moon, without food, air and a moderate ambient temperature, they wouldn’t last very long once they revived, Kazuharu Arakawa, a tardigrade researcher with the Institute for Advanced Biosciences at Keio University in Tokyo, told Live Science in an email.

“Much as I would love to see the establishment of the Lunar Tardigrade Republic, I don’t think that’s going to happen,” Martin said.

Something Weird Is Happening to the Black Hole at the Center of the Milky Way

An artist's depiction of a black hole at the center of a galaxy.

An artist’s depiction of a black hole at the center of a galaxy.(Image: © NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Astronomers have been watching the black hole at the center of our galaxy for 20 years, and in May, they saw something they’d never seen before.

Well, technically, they aren’t watching the black hole itself, which scientists call Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. Instead, they’re looking at the matter around that black hole. When the Milky Way’s black hole is more active than usual, that event horizon becomes brighter as it heats up due to friction. Usually, Sgr A* is pretty calm for a black hole, but in May, that changed, according to new research.

“The black hole is always variable, but this was the brightest we’ve seen in the infrared so far,” Tuan Do, an astronomer at the University of California, Los Angeles, and lead author of the new study, said on Twitter. “It was probably even brighter before we started observing that night!”

That hypothesis is based on the fact that, when the astronomers focused on the area on May 13, they only saw relatively high brightness decreasing, suggesting that the black hole had passed an unknown peak that was even brighter. According to the new paper, the recent flare brought Sgr A* to twice the brightness of the highest previous measurement to date.

Do and his colleagues made the observations using the Keck telescopes on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. That instrument can see the world in near infrared light, which encompasses wavelengths a bit longer than those our eyes can see.

Here’s a timelapse of images over 2.5 hr from May from @keckobservatory of the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The black hole is always variable, but this was the brightest we’ve seen in the infrared so far. It was probably even brighter before we started observing that night!4,5848:53 PM – Aug 10, 2019Twitter Ads info and privacy2,368 people are talking about this

They think the black-hole flare may have been caused by the close passage of either a star called S0-2 last year or a dusty object called G2 in 2014.

The scientists hope more observations of Sgr A* will help them sort out what the massive black hole is doing. Those observations include measurements made overnight on Aug. 13 and 14 after a hiatus due to protests at Mauna Kea.

Other instruments, including the Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes and ground-based instruments, have pointed to Sgr A* on and off throughout the past few months, although those data have yet to be analyzed. ART-XC, a new Russian space telescope that launched about a month ago, also has turned its eye on the black hole despite still being in its calibration period.

The black hole is also the target of the globe-spanning Event Horizon Telescope, a collaboration that published the first image of a black hole in April. The historic image was of the black hole at the heart of a galaxy called M87, but the scientists are also working on processing data about Sgr A*.

The original observations are described in a paper posted to the preprint server on Aug. 5 that was recently accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Cause of mysterious methane spikes on Mars still unknown.

A few months after detecting an “unusually high” level of methane on Mars, researchers have yet to figure out what’s causing the spike. They have, however, ruled out one possibility and appear to be getting closer to answering whether life exists on other planets.

According to a study published in Scientific Reports, researchers from Newcastle University in the U.K. have ruled out that the spike could have been caused by wind erosion of rocks that had trapped the methane from fluid inclusions and fractures on the Red Planet’s surface.

“The questions are — where is this methane coming from, and is the source biological? That’s a massive question and to get to the answer we need to rule out lots of other factors first,” principal investigator Dr. Jon Telling said in a statement.

This self-portrait of NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover shows the vehicle on Vera Rubin Ridge in Gale crater on Mars. North is on the left and west is on the right, with Gale crater’s rim on the horizon of both edges. This mosaic was assembled from dozens of images taken by Curiosity’s Mars Hands Lens Imager (MAHLI). They were all taken on Jan. 23, 2018, during Sol 1943. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS)

On Earth, methane is produced both from biological and geological sources.

Telling added that over the last decade, winds on Mars have driven more sand movement than previously thought and that the erosions could be similar to those of sand dunes seen on Earth. Using the data they had, they found that wind erosion was not the source of the methane spikes and is coming from another source.

“What’s important about this is that it strengthens the argument that the methane must be coming from a different source,” Telling said. “Whether or not that’s biological, we still don’t know.”

Methane was first detected in the Martian atmosphere in 2003, but the recent spike in levels discovered by NASA’s Curiosity rover has perplexed researchers. In June, the space agency confirmed the rover measured the largest level of methane, 21 parts per billion units by volume, since landing on the Red Planet on Aug. 6, 2012.

The New York Times reported in June that sunlight and chemical reactions would break up any methane in Mars’ thin air “within a few centuries,” adding that the newly-detected spike was likely released recently.

The study’s lead author, Dr. Emmal Safi, noted that although the new research is “just a little part of a much bigger story,” he hopes it leads scientists to the answer of whether life exists on other planets.

“Ultimately, what we’re trying to discover is if there’s the possibility of life existing on planets other than our own, either living now or maybe life in the past that is now preserved as fossils or chemical signatures,” Safi said.

The Mars methane spike has surprised experts. Researchers used Curiosity’s onboard laboratory to “sniff” methane in the Martian atmosphere 12 times over a 20-month period that ended in 2014.

“During two of those months, in late 2013 and early 2014, four measurements averaged seven parts per billion,” said NASA in a 2014 statement. “Before and after that, readings averaged only one-tenth that level.”

Sudden spikes of methane also have been recorded, but scientists don’t know how long these “transient plumes” last or why they differ from seasonal patterns.

NASA finds evidence of ‘interplanetary shock’ for first time

NASA has captured a phenomenon in space that has eluded humanity for centuries — an “interplanetary shock.”

Four spacecraft from the space agency, which are part of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) that launched in 2015, managed to get a view of the event in January 2018. The craft were just 12 miles away from one another, which made seeing the spectacle possible.

“MMS was able to measure the shock thanks to its unprecedentedly fast and high-resolution instruments. One of the instruments aboard MMS is the Fast Plasma Investigation,” the space agency said in a statement on its website. “This suite of instruments can measure ions and electrons around the spacecraft at up to 6 times per second. Since the speeding shock waves can pass the spacecraft in just half a second, this high-speed sampling is essential to catching the shock.”

Data from the Fast Plasma Investigation aboard MMS shows the shock and reflected ions as they washed over MMS. The colors represent the amount of ions seen with warmer colors indicating higher numbers of ions. The reflected ions (yellow band that appears just above the middle of the figure) show up midway through the animation, and can be seen increasing in intensity (warmer colors) as they pass MMS, shown as a white dot. (Credit: Ian Cohen)

Data from the Fast Plasma Investigation aboard MMS shows the shock and reflected ions as they washed over MMS. The colors represent the amount of ions seen with warmer colors indicating higher numbers of ions. The reflected ions (yellow band that appears just above the middle of the figure) show up midway through the animation, and can be seen increasing in intensity (warmer colors) as they pass MMS, shown as a white dot. (Credit: Ian Cohen)

NASA continued: “Looking at the data from Jan. 8, the scientists noticed a clump of ions from the solar wind. Shortly after, they saw a second clump of ions, created by ions already in the area that had bounced off the shock as it passed by. Analyzing this second population, the scientists found evidence to support a theory of energy transfer first posed in the 1980s.”

An interplanetary shock, which emanates from the Sun, is a type of “collisionless shock,” where particles transfer energy through electromagnetic fields as opposed to bouncing into one another, NASA added.

“These collisionless shocks are a phenomenon found throughout the universe, including in supernovae, black holes and distant stars. MMS studies collisionless shocks around Earth to gain a greater understanding of shocks across the universe,” the space agency continued.

The researchers behind the observation hope that additional instances are spotted by the MMS that will give them more detailed looks at these interplanetary shocks.

NASA has released a video describing the charged particles, also known as the solar wind, in greater detail.

The research describing the find was published in the journal JGR Space Physics.

Asteroid the size of the Washington Monument will fly past Earth this month

Asteroid the size of the Washington Monument will fly past Earth this month

Washington Monument-sized asteroid to fly past Earth at 42,650 feet per second later this month

Just days after an asteroid the size of the Empire State Building flew past Earth, another “potentially hazardous” space rock will do the same.

Asteroid 2019 OU1 will safely pass by Earth on Aug. 28, coming within 639,000 miles or 0.00687 astronomical units of the planet. At an estimated diameter of 71 to 160 meters (233 to 524 feet), 2019 OU1 has sparked comparisons to the 555-foot tall Washington Monument.

2019 OU1 is also hurtling through space at roughly 42,650 feet per second, according to data compiled by NASA.

The space rock is known as a near-Earth object (NEO) and “potentially hazardous” NEOs are defined as space objects that come within 0.05 astronomical units and measure more than 460 feet in diameter, according to NASA.

According to a 2018 report put together by, there are more than 18,000 NEOs.

NASA has been preparing for planetary defense from asteroid strikes for years. A recent survey showed that Americans prefer a space program that focuses on potential asteroid impacts over sending humans back to the moon or to Mars,

In 2016, NASA formalized the agency’s prior program for detecting and tracking NEOs and put it inside its Science Mission Directorate.

Last June, NASA unveiled a 20-page plan that detailed the steps the U.S. should take to be better prepared for NEOs — such as asteroids and comets — that come within 30 million miles of the planet.

Lindley Johnson, the space agency’s planetary defense officer, said at the time that the country “already has significant scientific, technical and operational capabilities” to help with NEOs, but implementing the new plan would “greatly increase our nation’s readiness and work with international partners to effectively respond should a new potential asteroid impact be detected.”

In addition to enhancing NEO detection, tracking and characterizing capabilities and improving modeling prediction, the plan also aims to develop technologies for deflecting NEOs, increasing international cooperation and establishing new NEO impact emergency procedures and action protocols.

NASA awarded a $69 million contract to SpaceX, the space exploration company led by Elon Musk, in April to help it with asteroid deflection via its Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission.

Separately in April, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said that an asteroid strike is not something to be taken lightly and is perhaps Earth’s biggest threat.

“We have to make sure that people understand that this is not about Hollywood, it’s not about movies,” Bridenstine said at the International Academy of Astronautics’ 2019 Planetary Defense Conference in College Park, Md., according to “This is about ultimately protecting the only planet we know right now to host life, and that is the planet Earth.”

Dark matter may be older than the Big Bang

Dark matter, which researchers believe make up about 80% of the universe’s mass, is one of the most elusive mysteries in modern physics. What exactly it is and how it came to be is a mystery, but a new study now suggests that dark matter may have existed before the Big Bang.

Big Bang illustration (stock image).Credit: © Andrea Danti / Adobe Stock

Dark matter, which researchers believe make up about 80% of the universe’s mass, is one of the most elusive mysteries in modern physics. What exactly it is and how it came to be is a mystery, but a new Johns Hopkins University study now suggests that dark matter may have existed before the Big Bang.

The study, published August 7 in Physical Review Letters, presents a new idea of how dark matter was born and how to identify it with astronomical observations.

“The study revealed a new connection between particle physics and astronomy. If dark matter consists of new particles that were born before the Big Bang, they affect the way galaxies are distributed in the sky in a unique way. This connection may be used to reveal their identity and make conclusions about the times before the Big Bang too,” says Tommi Tenkanen, a postdoctoral fellow in Physics and Astronomy at the Johns Hopkins University and the study’s author.

While not much is known about its origins, astronomers have shown that dark matter plays a crucial role in the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Though not directly observable, scientists know dark matter exists by its gravitation effects on how visible matter moves and is distributed in space.

For a long time, researchers believed that dark matter must be a leftover substance from the Big Bang. Researchers have long sought this kind of dark matter, but so far all experimental searches have been unsuccessful.

“If dark matter were truly a remnant of the Big Bang, then in many cases researchers should have seen a direct signal of dark matter in different particle physics experiments already,” says Tenkanen.

Using a new, simple mathematical framework, the study shows that dark matter may have been produced before the Big Bang during an era known as the cosmic inflation when space was expanding very rapidly. The rapid expansion is believed to lead to copious production of certain types of particles called scalars. So far, only one scalar particle has been discovered, the famous Higgs boson.

“We do not know what dark matter is, but if it has anything to do with any scalar particles, it may be older than the Big Bang. With the proposed mathematical scenario, we don’t have to assume new types of interactions between visible and dark matter beyond gravity, which we already know is there,” explains Tenkanen.

While the idea that dark matter existed before the Big Bang is not new, other theorists have not been able to come up with calculations that support the idea. The new study shows that researchers have always overlooked the simplest possible mathematical scenario for dark matter’s origins, he says.

The new study also suggests a way to test the origin of dark matter by observing the signatures dark matter leaves on the distribution of matter in the universe.

“While this type of dark matter is too elusive to be found in particle experiments, it can reveal its presence in astronomical observations. We will soon learn more about the origin of dark matter when the Euclid satellite is launched in 2022. It’s going to be very exciting to see what it will reveal about dark matter and if its findings can be used to peek into the times before the Big Bang.”

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Materials provided by Johns Hopkins UniversityNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Something Just Smacked Jupiter and Here’s the Photo to Prove It

Ouch, that looks painful!

A photograph captured by amateur astronomer Ethan Chappel appears to show an asteroid slamming into the gas giant Jupiter on Wednesday (Aug. 7). So far, astronomers are still waiting to see whether anyone else spotted the sudden flash, which was located over the planet’s South Equatorial Belt.

“Today has felt completely unreal to me,” Chappel wrote on Twitter. “Hoping someone else also recorded the impact to seal the deal.” Chappel and fellow astrophotographer George Chappel post amazing views of the night sky at their website Chappel Astro.

There’s plenty of precedent for such impacts at Jupiter: The planet’s massive gravity tugs asteroids and other space debris toward itself. One group of astronomers has estimated an object 16.5 feet to 65 feet (5 to 20 meters) across slams into the planet between one and five times a month.

Those impacts are inevitable given the huge amount of rubble floating through the vastness of space. Astronomers have already identified more than 20,000 objects hanging around in Earth’s neighborhood alone, and they know that tally is just a fraction of the total. Such space rocks hit Earth as well, and protecting Earth from them is the purview of a field known as planetary defense, but Jupiter takes more blows because of its mass.

Here’s an animation that’s more representative of how fast the flash on #Jupiter occurred. Unfortunately, I couldn’t make this work without cutting out 6 frames for every 7.4,0679:28 PM – Aug 7, 2019Twitter Ads info and privacy1,469 people are talking about this

Jupiter’s most famous bruise came from the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994. The comet fragmented and then, over the course of two years, about 20 different chunks fell into the gas giant’s banded clouds, leaving dark scars in the clouds.

This impact is unlikely to leave such scars, according to astronomer Heidi Hammel of the Space Science Institute on Twitter, who spearheaded Hubble Space Telescope observations of Shoemaker-Levy 9’s impact.

(That’s the same telescope that recently unveiled a stunning new image of Jupiter and its slowly shrinking Great Red Spot. That image was captured June 27, long before Chappel’s photograph.) 

We’ve reached out to Ethan and George Chappel to find out more about their amazing Jupiter flash photo. This story will be updated as more details are available. 

Dead planets can ‘broadcast’ their ‘zombie signals’ for almost a billion years, study says

Dead planets can ‘broadcast’ their ‘zombie signals’ for almost a billion years, study says

Planets that have been dead for almost a billion years may still be able to “broadcast” their signals in space, according to a new study.

According to research published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, planets that have been stripped down to their cores by their stars interact with that star (likely at the end of its lifespan and thus, a white dwarf) and send out radio waves, thanks to the magnetic field between the two celestial bodies. The radio waves are often picked up by radio telescopes on Earth.

“There is a sweet spot for detecting these planetary cores: a core too close to the white dwarf would be destroyed by tidal forces, and a core too far away would not be detectable,” the study’s lead author, Dimitri Veras, said in a statement.

This artist's rendering provided by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics shows an asteroid slowly disintegrating as it orbits a white dwarf star.

This artist’s rendering provided by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics shows an asteroid slowly disintegrating as it orbits a white dwarf star. (AP)

“Also, if the magnetic field is too strong, it would push the core into the white dwarf, destroying it,” Veras continued. “Hence, we should only look for planets around those white dwarfs with weaker magnetic fields at a separation between about 3 solar radii and the Mercury-Sun distance.”

It’s still unclear how long the planetary cores can survive after the planet is stripped by the star. The researchers’ model dictates that in certain cases, the core can last for over 100 million years and perhaps as long as 1 billion years.

Veras added that no one has yet found the “bare core” of a major planet before, a major planet via magnetic signatures or a major planet around a white dwarf. “Therefore, a discovery here would represent ‘firsts’ in three different senses for planetary systems,” Veras said.

Still, the researcher, along with his co-author, Pennsylvania State University professor Alexander Wolszczan, believe that the research they are doing now will eventually lead them to this discovery.

“We will use the results of this work as guidelines for designs of radio searches for planetary cores around white dwarfs,”  Wolszczan commented. “Given the existing evidence for a presence of planetary debris around many of them, we think that our chances for exciting discoveries are quite good.”

Mysterious, Ancient Radio Signals Keep Pelting Earth. Astronomers Designed an AI to Hunt Them Down.

Sudden shrieks of radio waves from deep space keep slamming into radio telescopes on Earth, spattering those instruments’ detectors with confusing data. And now, astronomers are using artificial intelligence to pinpoint the source of the shrieks, in the hope of explaining what’s sending them to Earth from — researchers suspect — billions of light-years across space.

Usually, these weird, unexplained signals are detected only after the fact, when astronomers notice out-of-place spikes in their data — sometimes years after the incident. The signals have complex, mysterious structures, patterns of peaks and valleys in radio waves that play out in just milliseconds. That’s not the sort of signal astronomers expect to come from a simple explosion, or any other one of the standard events known to scatter spikes of electromagnetic energy across space. Astronomers call these strange signals fast radio bursts (FRBs). Ever since the first one was uncovered in 2007, using data recorded in 2001, there’s been an ongoing effort to pin down their source. But FRBs arrive at random times and places, and existing human technology and observation methods aren’t well-primed to spot these signals.

Now, in a paper published July 4 in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, a team of astronomers wrote that they managed to detect five FRBs in real time using a single radio telescope. [The 12 Strangest Objects in the Universe]

An animation shows the random appearance of fast radio bursts (FRBs) across the sky. Astronomers have discovered about 85 since 2007.

An animation shows the random appearance of fast radio bursts (FRBs) across the sky. Astronomers have discovered about 85 since 2007. (NRAO Outreach/T. Jarrett (IPAC/Caltech); B. Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF)

Wael Farah, a doctoral student at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia, developed a machine-learning system that recognized the signatures of FRBs as they arrived at the University of Sydney’s Molonglo Radio Observatory, near Canberra. As Live Science has previously reported, many scientific instruments, including radio telescopes, produce more data per second than they can reasonably store. So they don’t record anything in the finest detail except their most interesting observations.

Farah’s system trained the Molonglo telescope to spot FRBs and switch over to its most detailed recording mode, producing the finest records of FRBs yet.

Based on their data, the researchers predicted that between 59 and 157 theoretically detectable FRBs splash across our skies every day. The scientists also used the immediate detections to hunt for related flares in data from X-ray, optical and other radio telescopes — in hopes of finding some visible event linked to the FRBs — but had no luck.

Their research showed, however, that one of the most peculiar (and frustrating, for research purposes) traits of FRBs appears to be real: The signals, once arriving, never repeat themselves. Each one appears to be a singular event in space that will never happen again.

‘Earth-like exoplanets’ 12.5 light-years away could have liquid water and be home to life, study suggests

Two recently discovered “Earth-like” exoplanets could have liquid water on their surfaces and potentially support life, according to a new study.

Known as Teegarden b and Teegarden c, the exoplanets are likely within the star’s “habitable zone,” according to the abstract of the study, which was published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

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“They are among the most Earth-like exoplanets yet discovered,” the study’s abstract reads. “Applying an analytic habitability model we find that surface liquid water could be present on both planets for a wide range of atmospheric properties, which makes them attractive targets for biosignature searches.”

(Credit: PHL, UPR Arebio)

The planets orbit the star known as Teegarden’s star, a red dwarf in the Aries constellation that is 12 light-years from Earth. They were first discovered in June as part of the CARMENES search for exoplanets, according to a press release.

Teegarden b and c have extraordinarily short orbits, at just 4.9 and 11.4 days, respectively. They also always face Teegarden’s star with the same side, a condition known as “tidal locking,” which could help support life, the researchers noted.

In an interview with New Scientist, Amri Wandel, the study’s lead author, said tidally locked planets may be more likely to have liquid water and have more extreme temperatures on different parts of the planet.

“This gives a wider range of possible atmospheres that allow for life,” Wandel said.

According to the June press release, there is a 60 percent chance that Teegarden b has a temperature between 0 and 50 degrees Celsius. Teegarden c only has a 3 percent chance of having a temperate surface environment and is believed to have a temperature akin to Mars, approximately -47 degrees Celsius.

Astronomers are convinced they’ve found two new Earth-like planets in our galaxy, and both appear so similar to our own, they’re now among the top 19 known exoplanets with potentially habitable environments.

Orbiting a neighbouring star in the constellation of Aries just 12.5 light years away, one of these two planets might in fact hold the greatest similarity to Earth we’ve discovered so far.

“The two planets resemble the inner planets of our Solar System,” explainslead author Mathias Zechmeister, an astrophysicist at the University of Göttingen.

“They are only slightly heavier than Earth and are located in the so-called habitable zone, where water can be present in liquid form.”

Despite its proximity, this nearby Teegarden’s star was only discovered back in 2003. About ten times lighter than our own Sun and one of the smallest stars we know of, the old red dwarf, which is roughly 8 billion years old, has proved a challenge to research.

According to the team, other planetary systems around similar stars have always been detected using the transit method, when an orbiting planet passes in front of a star, blocking Earth’s view and causing the bright celestial object to darken for a brief moment.

The alignment and dimness of Teegarden wouldn’t lend itself to this method however, so astronomers instead used the CARMENES next-generation telescope designed specifically for such situations. Located at Spain’s Calar Alto Observatory, the instrument allowed the researchers to look for any changes in the mini-star’s radial velocity.

After three years of close observation, watching for any ‘wobbles’ produced by orbiting objects, more than 200 measurements indicate the existence of two new planets, now denominated as Teegarden b and Teegarden c.

To make sure the radial velocity data indicating these planets wasn’t spoofed by variations in the star’s brightness, the researchers complemented their observations with photometric (light measurement) data gathered about Teegarden’s Star.

“These studies demonstrate that the signals of the two planets cannot be due to the activity of the star, even though we could not detect the transits of the two new planets,” says astronomer Victor Sánchez Béjar from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (AIS).

Teegarden b is the innermost planet; according to the international team, it has a 60 percent chance of having a temperate surface environment, somewhere between 0° to 50°C and probably closer to 28°C. Teegarden c, on the other hand, sits farther out, and has a surface temperature more like Mars, sitting at roughly -47°C.

01 teegardensstar image.adapt.1190.1

(A Mendez/PHL)

Given their minimum mass and their exposure to solar radiation, both planets have made the Habitable Exoplanets Catalog. In fact, Teegarden b has actually scored the highest Earth Similarity Index (ESI) ever.

While this doesn’t necessarily mean that either planet is indeed habitable, it’s certainly a promising sign. Zechmeister told The Guardian that if these planets are equipped with atmospheres, they could very well be hospitable to life.

“The planets Teegarden’s Star b and c are the first planets detected with the radial velocity method around such an ultra-cool dwarf,” the team writes in a paper describing the discovery.

“Both planets have a minimum mass close to one Earth mass, and given a rocky, partially iron, or water composition, they are expected to have Earth-like radii.”

Lauren Weiss, an astrophysicist at the University of Hawaii who was not involved in this research, told National Geographic there were still some technical details that need to be teased out, but she was impressed by the overall quality of data.

While the team predicts that Teegarden b completes its orbit in 4.9 Earth days, and c does so in 11.4 days, Weiss argues that their journey might go even faster than that, which would inevitably reduce their habitability.

What’s more, she adds, we don’t yet know precisely how long it takes Teegarden to rotate on its axis; given that astronomers used radial velocity measurements to obtain their discovery, one of these planet detections might still be an artefact of the star’s rotation – but probably not both.

As the 24th nearest star system to our own and the nearest fourth with potentially habitable planets, Teegardeen is an excellent candidate for future research, and its potential to harbour life has left us quite excited.

The research has been published in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Gigantic black hole with mass 40 billion times the Sun discovered by astronomers

Astronomers believe they have discovered a supermassive black hole located 700 million light-years from Earth — it has a mass 40 billion times that of the Sun.

The black hole resides in Holmberg 15A, a so-called supergiant elliptical galaxy located within a group of over 500 galaxies called Abell 85, according to SciNews.

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“This is the most massive black hole with a direct dynamical detection in the local Universe,” the researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and University Observatory Munich told the publication.

“This makes it the most massive in our region of the universe, and one of the most massive ever found.”— Andrew Coates, astronomer

“This black hole is not only one of the most massive known, it is also 4 to 9 times larger than expected given the galaxy’s bulge stellar mass,” they said.

An artist's impression of a black hole accretion disk.

An artist’s impression of a black hole accretion disk. 

This supermassive black hole is twice as large as two other huge black holes, scientists noted.

“This is a remarkable observation of an extremely massive black hole at 40 billion solar masses. This makes it the most massive in our region of the universe, and one of the most massive ever found,” Andrew Coates, from University College London’s Department of Space and Climate Physics, told Newsweek.

The work was completed by astronomer Kianusch Mehrgan and her colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and University Observatory Munich.

The findings will be published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Millions of Black Holes Are Hiding in Our Galaxy. Here’s How Astronomers Plan to Find Them.

It’s time to find all the missing black holes.

That’s the argument advanced by a pair of Japanese astrophysicists, who wrote a paper proposing a new search for millions of “isolated black holes” (IBHs) that likely populate our galaxy. These black holes, lost in the darkness, sip matter from the interstellar medium — the dust and other stuff floating between stars. But that process is inefficient, and a great deal of the matter gets expelled into space at high speeds. As that outflow interacts with the surrounding environment, the researchers wrote, it should produce radio waves that human radio telescopes can detect. And if astronomers can sift out those waves from all the noise that’s in the rest of the galaxy, they might be able to spot these unseen black holes.

“A naive way to observe IBHs is through their X-ray emission,” the researchers wrote in their paper, which has not yet been formally peer reviewed and which they made available July 1 as a preprint on arXiv. 

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Why is that? As black holes suck the matter from space, that matter at its fringes accelerates and forms what’s known as an accretion disk. The matter in that disk rubs against itself as it spins toward the event horizon— a black hole’s point of no return — spitting out X-rays in the process. But isolated black holes, which are small compared to supermassive black holes, don’t emit a great deal of X-rays this way. There simply isn’t enough matter or energy in their accretion disks to create large X-ray signatures. And past searches for IBHs using X-rays have failed to produce conclusive results.

“These outflows can possibly make the IBHs detectable in other wavelengths,” the researchers, Daichi Tsuna of the University of Tokyo and Norita Kawanaka of Kyoto University, wrote in their paper. “The outflows can interact with the surrounding matter and create strong collisionless shocks at the interface. These shocks can amplify magnetic fields and accelerate electrons, and these electrons emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelength.” 

 In other words, the outflow sliding through the interstellar medium should get electrons moving at speeds that produce radio waves.

“Interesting paper,” said Simon Portegies Zwart, an astrophysicist at Leiden University in the Netherlands, who was not involved in Tsuna and Kawanaka’s research. Portegies Zwart has also studied the question of IBHs, also known as intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs).

“It would be a great way to find IMBHs,” Portegies Zwart told Live Science. “I think that with LOFAR [the Low-Frequency Array in the Netherlands], such research should already be possible, but the sensitivity may pose a problem.”

IBHs, Portegies Zwart explained, are thought of as a “missing link” between the two types of black holes astronomers can detect: stellar-mass black holes that can be two to possibly 100 times the size of our sun, and supermassive black holes, the gargantuan beasts that live at the cores of galaxies and are hundreds of thousands of times the size of our sun.

Stellar-mass black holes are occasionally detectable in binary systems with regular stars, because the binary systems can produce gravitational waves and companion stars can provide fuel for large X-ray bursts. And supermassive black holes have accretion disks that emit so much energy that astronomers can detect and even photograph them.

But IBHs, in the midrange between those two other types, are far more difficult to detect. There are a handful of objects in space that astronomers suspect might be IBHs, but those results are uncertain. But past research, including a 2017 paper in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, which Portegies Zwart co-authored, suggests millions of them could be hiding out there.

Tsuna and Kawanaka wrote that the best prospect for a radio survey of IBHs probably involves using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a multi-part radio telescope due to be built with sections in South Africa and Australia. It’s slated to have a total radio-wave collecting area of 1 square kilometer (0.39 square miles). The researchers estimate that at least 30 IBHs emit radio waves that the SKA will be able to detect during its first, proof-of-concept phase, which is scheduled for 2020. Down the road, they wrote, the complete SKA (scheduled for the mid-2020s) should be able to detect up to 700.

Not only should SKA be able to spot radio waves from these IBHs, they wrote, it should also be able to precisely estimate the distance to many of them. When that time comes, finally, all these missing black holes should start to come out of hiding.

If Aliens Are Flashing Laser Beams at Us, We Now Have a Way to Detect Them

Welcome to Project Veritas.

Scientists are on the hunt for signals from intelligent aliens. 

Are aliens using super powerful flashlights to get our attention? Astronomers think there’s a chance they are.

Since the invention of the radio, humans have been silently listening to the stars, wondering if we are alone in the universe. But if intelligent alien life does exist, the extraterrestrials could be using other forms of technology to communicate. Astronomers are beginning to not only listen to the cosmos but also gaze toward it for other signs of alien tech: laser beams.

Breakthrough Listen, the most extensive Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) program in history, announced that its team will begin looking for new signs of alien technology using the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Amado, Arizona. 

“When it comes to intelligent life beyond Earth, we don’t know where it exists or how it communicates,” Yuri Milner, billionaire particle physicist and founder of Breakthrough Listen, said in a statement. “So our philosophy is to look in as many places, and in as many ways, as we can. VERITAS expands our range of observation even further.”

Using VERITAS, astronomers will begin scanning the night sky for nanosecond flashes of light from nearby stars. Like a lighthouse beacon for the cosmos, these brief pulses of optical light would outshine any nearby stars and could indicate a method of alien communication.

“With the addition of VERITAS, we’re sensitive to an important new class of signals: fast optical pulses,” Andrew Siemion, the director of Berkeley’s SETI Research Center, said in the statement. “Optical communication has already been used by NASA to transmit high-definition images to Earth from the moon, so there’s a reason to believe that an advanced civilization might use a scaled-up version of this technology for interstellar communication.”

VERITAS has looked for such laser pulses from the mysteriously dimming Tabby’s Star after some had speculated there could be an alien megastructure surrounding it that caused the odd dimming. If the most powerful lasers on Earth were used at Tabby’s Star and pointed in our direction, VERITAS could detect them. Of the 1 million stars on the Breakthrough Listen target list, most of them are 10 to 100 times closer to Earth than Tabby’s Star, meaning even weaker laser flashes from intelligent aliens could be detected.

The array of four 12-meter optical telescopes is traditionally used to detect gamma rays — high-energy radiation emitted by extreme cosmic objects like exploding stars and even black holes — in the night sky. When gamma rays hit Earth’s atmosphere, they produce very faint blue flashes of light called Cherenkov radiation, because the particles travel faster than the speed of light through air. So the blue flashes are the light equivalent of a sonic boom. The telescope array’s ability to detect and pinpoint the source of these short-lived blue flashes made it the perfect candidate to search for laser beams from distant stars and galaxies.

“It is impressive how well-suited the VERITAS telescopes are for this project, since they were built only with the purpose of studying very-high-energy gamma rays in mind,” David Williams, a member of the VERITAS collaboration and professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Cruz, said in the statement.

The Breakthrough Listen initiative is a $100 million, 10-year project funded by Yuri Milner, a Russian billionaire and science philanthropist. The project, which began in 2015, has already surveyed more than 1,000 stars within 160 light-years away from Earth for signs of alien radio signals, with no positive results.

“We believe that life arose spontaneously on Earth, so in an infinite universe, there must be other occurrences of life,” famed physicist Stephen Hawking said during the initiative’s launch. “Somewhere in the cosmos, perhaps intelligent life might be watching these lights of ours, aware of what they mean. Or do our lights wander a lifeless cosmos, unseen beacons announcing that, here on one rock, the universe discovered its existence? Either way, there is no better question.”

Asteroid size of Empire State Building set to fly by Earth next week

Empire State Building-sized asteroid headed for Earth

NASA has learned a near-Earth object (NEO), asteroid 2006 QQ23, will zoom past the planet. Scientists have been tracking the rock and believe there is no cause for alarm.

A “potentially hazardous” asteroid that is as large as the Empire State Building will zoom past Earth next week on Aug. 10. But it’s not anything to worry about, according to experts.

Known as a near-Earth object (NEO), asteroid 2006 QQ23 will come within approximately 4.65 million miles, according to data compiled by NASA. However, the space rock has been orbiting Earth since at least 1901 (when records date back to) and NASA has mapped out its orbit all the way to February 2200, so it’s not a cause for alarm.

In November 2017, its orbit took it flying past Venus. The last time it zoomed past Earth was Jan. 17, 2017, the space agency noted.

According to a 2018 report put together by, there are more than 18,000 NEOs.

One-thousand eight-hundred seventy feet in diameter, 2006 QQ23 will blow past Earth at 10,400 mph, but if it hit the planet, it could cause some serious damage.

Asteroid 2019 OK zipped past Earth late last month, coming within 43,500 miles as it traveled at a robust speed of 15 miles a second. Only spotted a few days prior to its passing, the asteroid was labeled a “city-killer” if it had struck the planet in a densely populated area.

“This is one of the closest approaches to Earth by an asteroid that we know of. And it’s a pretty large one,” Michael Brown, an associate professor at Monash University’s school of physics and astronomy told the New York Post of Asteroid 2019 OK.

Although a recent survey showed that Americans prefer a space program that focuses on potential asteroid impacts over sending humans back to the Moon or to Mars, NASA has been preparing for planetary defense from asteroid strikes for years.

In 2016, NASA formalized the agency’s prior program for detecting and tracking NEOs and put it inside its Science Mission Directorate.

Last June, NASA unveiled a 20-page plan that detailed the steps the U.S. should take to be better prepared for NEOs such as asteroids and comets that come within 30 million miles of the planet.

Lindley Johnson, the space agency’s planetary defense officer, said at the time that the country “already has significant scientific, technical and operational capabilities” to help with NEOs, but implementing the new plan would “greatly increase our nation’s readiness and work with international partners to effectively respond should a new potential asteroid impact be detected.”

In addition to enhancing NEO detection, tracking and characterizing capabilities and improving modeling prediction, the plan also aims to develop technologies for deflecting NEOs, increasing international cooperation and establishing new NEO impact emergency procedures and action protocols.

NASA awarded a $69 million contract to SpaceX, the space exploration company led by Elon Musk, in April to help it with asteroid deflection via its Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission.

Separately in April, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said that an asteroid strike is not something to be taken lightly and is perhaps Earth’s biggest threat.

“We have to make sure that people understand that this is not about Hollywood, it’s not about movies,” Bridenstine said at the International Academy of Astronautics’ 2019 Planetary Defense Conference in College Park, Md, according to “This is about ultimately protecting the only planet we know right now to host life, and that is the planet Earth.”

France Is Launching a ‘Space Force’ with Weaponized Satellites

New French satellites will be equipped with machine guns and laser weapons.

French Minister of Defense Florence Parly (left) discusses the new French space force in a speech at Airbase 942 in Lyon-Mont Verdun, on July 25, 2019. Next to her on stage, French Air Force general Philippe Lavigne stands beside a model of a satellite.

French Minister of Defense Florence Parly (left) discusses the new French space force in a speech at Airbase 942 in Lyon-Mont Verdun, on July 25, 2019. Next to her on stage, French Air Force general Philippe Lavigne stands beside a model of a satellite.(Image: © Philippe Desmazes/AFP/Getty)

Months after President Donald Trump announced the creation of the U.S. Space Force, France is beginning to lay the groundwork for its own version. 

French President Emmanuel Macron announced last month that the nation’s air force will establish a space command for the purpose of national defense, particularly to protect of French satellites. 

Last week, French Minister of Defense Florence Parly detailed the nation’s plan for its new space force, which involves equipping satellites with machine guns and lasers, according to the French news weekly Le Point

First, the country will launch next-generation Syracuse satellites equipped with cameras that will be able to identify threats in space, such as anti-satellite weapons

The French military currently operates a constellation of three Syracuse satellites that are primarily used for communication between the mainland and French troops deployed abroad. But after the new cameras are tried and tested, France will launch another generation of Syracuse satellites that will also be able to destroy enemy satellites. 

The upgraded Syracuse satellites will be armed with either submachine guns or lasers that could disable or even destroy another satellite, according to Le Point; France aims to have those space weapons fully operational in orbit by 2030.French Spy Satellite Launched by Arianespace Soyuz RocketVolume 0% 

While the international Outer Space Treaty prohibits the testing of weapons of mass destruction or nuclear weapons in orbit, and another United Nations treaty prohibits the weaponization of outer space, France has no intention of violating those treaties or initiating any space battles with its satellites, Parly said during a speech at Air Base 942 Lyon Mont-Verdun on July 26.

“We do not want to embark on a space arms race,” Parly said. “We will conduct a reasoned arsenalization.”

Parly announced that the French air force would receive an additional 700 million euros (around $780 million) in addition to its existing €3.6 billion (about $40 billion) budget for space activities between 2019 and 2025. The new space command will consist of 220 personnel from the French Air Forces’ Joint Space Command, the Operational Center for Military Surveillance of Space Objects (COSMOS) and the Satellite Observation Military Center (CMOS). The space force will operate from the new Air Force Space Operations Center in Toulouse. 

It’s Good! Hubble Telescope Scores Big with Football-Shaped Alien Planet

WASP-121b is burning up at 4,600 degrees.

An illustration of Planet WASP-121b orbiting its host star, which is even hotter than our sun.

An illustration of Planet WASP-121b orbiting its host star, which is even hotter than our sun. 

(Image: © NASA, ESA and J. Olmsted)

Scientists scored a touchdown when they observed heavy metals escaping from the surface of a football-shaped exoplanet that’s way too hot to handle.

The large and gassy “hot Jupiter,” called WASP-121b, orbits so close to its sun that its temperature is 10 times greater than that of any other known planet. Its odd, football-like shape is also due to the planet’s close proximity to the host star as it is on the verge of being ripped apart by the star’s gravity.

Using the Hubble Space Telescope, the group of scientists observed heavy metals, such as iron and magnesium, escaping through the surface of the exoplanet — marking the first time heavy metals were observed floating away from an exoplanet’s upper atmosphere. 

“Heavy metals have been seen in other hot Jupiters before, but only in the lower atmosphere so you don’t know if they are escaping or not,” David Sing a professor at the Earth and Planetary Science department at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland and lead author of the study, said in a statement by NASA. “With WASP-121b, we see magnesium and iron gas so far away from the planet that they’re not gravitationally bound.”

The temperature of the exoplanet’s upper atmosphere reaches 4,600 degrees Fahrenheit (2,538 Celsius), according to the statement. Therefore, unlike other hot Jupiters that are still cool enough to condense iron and magnesium into clouds, this sizzling hot world emits the gases from its surface. Additionally, the exoplanet is also described as “so big and puffy” that its gravity is relatively weak compared to other planets, making it easier for the gases to escape.

“This is a planet being actively stripped of its atmosphere,” Sing added. “In the case of WASP-121b, the hydrogen and helium gas is outflowing, almost like a river, and is dragging these metals with them. It’s a very efficient mechanism for mass loss.”

The escaping heavy metals could also contribute to the exoplanet’s rising temperatures. “These metals will make the atmosphere more opaque in the ultraviolet, which could be contributing to the heating of the upper atmosphere,” Sing said. 

Scientists are hoping to further study the exoplanet using NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to launch in March 2021, in order to search for water and carbon dioxide under ultraviolet light. 

A star turned into a black hole before Hubble’s very eyes

Bye bye supernove

When a massive star expends its fuel, its core collapses into a dense object and sends the rest of its gas outward in an event called a supernova. What’s left is mostly neutron stars or black holes. And now, Hubble seems to have seen a supernova blink out — suggesting it captured the moment when a black hole took over.

While some supernova events are explosive and leave clouds of debris for thousands of years (aka nebula) like SN 1054, the star in question seems to have begun to explode and then had all its gas sucked right back into the black hole at the center. This can happen when the core collapse of the star is especially massive. Rather than exploding, the gas collapses directly into the core of the star.

Only a few of these so called “massive fails” (yes, that’s what they’re calling them) have been spotted, so astronomers are cautious about the results. But this particular star, located in the galaxy NGC 6946, was bright enough to see from 22 million light years away and faded in an instant, suggesting a massive stellar-mass black hole was the driving culprit.

Want to learn more about the most exotic objects in the universe? Download our FREE eBook, Exotic Objects: Black holes, Pulsars, and more

This artist’s impression of a massive star that implodes instead of exploding as a supernova.

Astronomers may have finally seen a star become a black hole

“This is the target we’ve been waiting for for years,” says one astrophysicist.

AS DINOSAURS STOMPED across ancient Earth more than 200 million years ago, a massive star was entering its death throes. The resulting cosmic explosion was so unusual, it left astronomers scratching their heads when its glow at last reached our planet last June.

Now, the mysterious flash may have an origin story. Based on the latest observations of the strange supernova, nicknamed the Cow, a team of 45 astronomers argues that it may represent the first time humans have captured the exact moment a dying star gave birth to a black hole.

“This is the target we’ve been waiting for for years,” says team leader Raffaella Margutti, an astrophysicist at Northwestern University. Margutti and her colleagues presented their work this week at the American Astronomical Society’s annual meeting in Seattle, Washington, and will soon be publishing their findings in the Astrophysical Journal.

The team’s data, captured in multiple wavelengths of light, could also mean that a massive star collapsed into a neutron star, a kind of dense stellar corpse. And other teams studying the Cow have proposed alternative explanations for its unusual behavior. So what do we know about the Cow, and why has it been so hard for astronomers to describe? We’ve got you covered.

Where is the Cow, and why is it called that?

The Cow exploded in the outskirts of CGCG 137-068, a dwarf spiral galaxy about 200 million light-years from Earth. It’s called “the Cow” because of its formal, auto-generated name AT2018cow. A team of astronomers using Hawaii’s ATLAS telescopes saw it on June 16, 2018, and flagged the object to other astronomers on June 17—triggering a rush of telescopes turning to point at the explosion.

What makes the Cow so unusual?

The Cow isn’t the first flash of its kind spotted in the night sky, but it is the closest one ever detected, giving researchers an unprecedented chance to see one in detail. It also got really bright, really fast. At the Cow’s peak, it was tens of times more luminous in x-rays than normal stellar explosions, which are called supernovae. The Cow hit its peak brightness in just a few days, while it takes regular supernovae weeks to fully ramp up.

What’s more, the Cow’s power source wasn’t immediately obvious. Normally, supernovae get their explosive oomph from nickel-56, a radioactive isotope stuffed in their innards. But when astronomers calculated how much debris the Cow had thrown off, they came up with a surprisingly low amount of total ejected debris—maybe a tenth of our sun’s mass, if that. That’s weird, because supernovae normally eject tens of suns’ worth of debris.

Even if the Cow’s debris were entirely nickel-56, that wouldn’t be enough fuel to power the observed explosion. What’s more, the debris contained hydrogen and helium, which astronomers weren’t expecting to find: The stars that explode into supernovae should have long since burned through those elements as nuclear fuel.

The Cow also gave off radiation in unusual ways. For instance, Margutti’s team asked to point NASA’s NuSTAR x-ray telescope at the object. The data showed that a little over a week after it first appeared, the Cow unexpectedly grew a lot brighter in high-energy x-rays. “The first reaction when we got the data was, perhaps we did something wrong,” Margutti says.

Do we know what caused the Cow?

The current consensus is that a compact “central engine” sits at the Cow’s center and spews those high-energy x-rays. This object, whatever it is, is shrouded in a distinctly asymmetrical blob of material thrown off in some kind of explosion.

“One of the jokes is that we [physicists] always model things as spherical cows, and it was clear that this was an aspherical cow,” says study coauthor Brian Metzger, a physicist at Columbia University. “It’s really hard to explain this as a spherical event, because if the x-ray source is powering the optical radiation, then how are the x-rays getting out to us?”

One of the jokes is that we [physicists] always model things as spherical cows, and it was clear that this was an aspherical cow.


In the model made by Margutti’s team, the debris flying from the object’s poles moves faster—and gets transparent sooner—than the clouds around the object’s equator. These equatorial clouds absorbed the engine’s high-energy x-rays, which made the clouds heat up and generate the Cow’s visible light. But some of the high-energy x-rays could still leak out from the Cow’s clearer poles.

Meanwhile, the Cow’s radio signals show that it behaved like a bull in a foggy china shop. When the Cow exploded, some of the debris from the object zoomed outward at more than 18,000 miles a second, or up to a tenth of the speed of light. The fastest of this material seems to have slammed into a dense haze of particles surrounding the Cow, heating up the haze and creating the object’s radio emissions.

So what is the Cow’s “central engine”?

Margutti’s team thinks there are two leading options. The Cow could be a highly magnetized neutron star rotating about a thousand times a second. The other possibility is that the object appeared when a huge and very hot type of star called a blue supergiant had a misfired explosion and became a black hole.

In this scenario, most of the star’s interior collapsed to form the black hole, but the star’s outermost layers didn’t feel it at first. As the inner black hole revved up, it lost some mass in the form of a swarm of ghostly particles called neutrinos. The neutrinos’ flight out of the star’s center ejected some of the outer material before the black hole could gobble it up, and the leftovers soon accreted into a disk around the newborn black hole.

Are there other ideas for what the Cow might be?

Margutti and her colleagues aren’t the only ones proposing that the Cow has a central engine. In another study accepted to the Astrophysical Journal, a separate team led by Caltech astronomer Anna Y. Q. Ho reaches similar conclusions.

But Daniel Perley, an astrophysicist at Liverpool John Moores University, suggests in his own study that the Cow may have appeared when an already existing and relatively massive black hole ate a star similar to our sun, in an event known as a tidal disruption. As the black hole’s immense gravity ripped the star apart, its gases could have accreted around the black hole in a disk, creating the Cow’s unusual glow in the process.

The question is whether it makes sense for a black hole of that size to be hanging out in the outskirts of a galaxy, in an area that should be dense with gas according to the Cow’s radio signals. Current theory holds that black holes of that caliber should form in star clusters, where there’s not a lot of extra gas.

Margutti argues that the Cow’s environment makes a lot more sense if the fog surrounding it was material thrown off by a huge star, one that could later collapse into a neutron star or black hole. But Perley points out that we haven’t yet found and studied any black holes in the mass range his team invokes, so we can’t be sure that theory matches reality.

“[Margutti’s] team is composed of some really top-tier supernova experts, but I’d like to see the tidal-disruption experts weigh in, to see if they can find a way to make it work,” Perley says.

What’s next?

Longer-term observations of the Cow could help tease out the identity of its central engine. If a magnetized neutron star lies at the Cow’s heart, Metzger says, it could send out x-ray flares years from now. A black hole, however, wouldn’t flicker in this way.

But the most fruitful way to learn more about the Cow is to find more objects like it. Astronomers only recently gained the ability to spot such flashes of light and follow up on them in real time, as more robotic telescopes and large-scale surveys have come online.

“These surveys of the night sky are almost taking movies … It’s an exciting time,” Metzger says. “We’re not just seeing the universe as a static thing, but something that can be every active, even on timescales of a few days.”

Living Underground on the Moon: How Lava Tubes Could Aid Lunar Colonization

But there’s a lot we still don’t know.

What lurks within the moon's underground lava tubes? Entrances or "skylights" to lava tubes might allow future explorers access to subsurface ice.

What lurks within the moon’s underground lava tubes? Entrances or “skylights” to lava tubes might allow future explorers access to subsurface ice.(Image: © Pascal Lee/Mars Institute/SETI Institute)

Getting humans back to the moon — “this time to stay” —  will require the exploitation of lunar resources, NASA officials and exploration advocates say. 

The most important resource, at least in the short term, is water ice, which is abundant on the floors of permanently shadowed polar craters. The ice found in these “cold traps” is thought to be stable and accessible. 

But there may be other spots on the moon that could yield a mother lode of scientific data — as well as the resources needed to sustain human occupation of Earth’s celestial next door neighbor. 

Related: Home on the Moon: How to Build a Lunar Colony (Infographic)

That’s the pits

Researchers have identified “pits” on the moon, which are likely lava-tube “skylights” — geological doorways to underground tunnels that were once filled with lava.

If they do indeed provide access to lava tubes, skylights could be a game-changer for human lunar exploration, said NASA Chief Scientist Jim Green. Lava tubes are protected from the harsh environment of the lunar surface, which is bombarded by radiation and experiences temperature extremes. One lunar day lasts about 29 Earth days, meaning surface locations endure about two straight weeks of daylight followed by two weeks of darkness. 

Connective roads?

“There are a number of things on the moon that are going to be surprises,” Green said. 

“We need to get in there,” he added, referring to lunar skylights. “We need to verify. Maybe there’s a lot of water in these skylights? We don’t know. We’re finding them all over the moon.” Moon Base Concept Has Buried Multi-Level Inflatable ModulesVolume 0% 

A lava-tube network would suggest protected corridors, free of temperature swings, bombarding radiation and menacing meteoroids. They also might offer a much larger habitat capability for future moon explorers. 

“We could actually build connective roads in them,” Green told “It could be a whole new world for us. That’s another absolute game-changer.” 

More data needed

NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images spot the newly discovered lava tube skylight candidates at Philolaus Crater near the moon's north pole.
NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images spot the newly discovered lava tube skylight candidates at Philolaus Crater near the moon’s north pole.

We don’t have enough information yet to ascertain if skylights on the moon represent an interconnected underground roadway, said Pascal Lee, a planetary scientist at the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute. He is also chairman of the Mars Institute and director of the NASA Haughton Mars Project at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. 

“For starters, not all pits on the moon are necessarily lava tube skylights,” Lee told He said that some might be associated with isolated underground cavities.

“Secondly, not all lava tubes in a given region should be expected to be interconnected,” he added. “Indeed, some might have formed at different times, and might run at different levels or depths underground.”

Maze of corridors?

Lee also said that while some lava tubes on Earth have smooth walls and floors, most have very rough surfaces and debris piles on their floors. 

“We don’t know how rough lava tubes on the moon might be, but the term underground roadway seems optimistic,” Lee said. “In any case, in my view, it’s not that pits on the moon would lead to a maze of underground corridors that makes them most interesting — although that is fascinating — but the fact that they give access to an environment that’s radically different from the surface, whatever shape that underground environment might have.”

Any underground cavity on the moon, after all, would provide shielding — from temperature swings, space radiation, micrometeoritic bombardment and sandblasting from the rocket engines of landing or departing spacecraft.

Water harvesting

Moon’s Water Distribution Has To Do With Time of Day, Other FactorsVolume 0% 

Most intriguing to Lee are candidate pits recently identified inside Philolaus Crater near the north pole of the moon. Advertisement

“They might be skylights associated with a network of lava tubes formed not in volcanic lava flows, but in an impact melt sheet, the temporary pool of molten rock that ponded inside Philolaus Crater following the large impact that created the crater,” he said.

Interestingly enough, Lee said, the candidate pits inside Philolaus are located at such a high latitude that sunlight would never enter the underlying caves. 

“These would be in perpetual darkness and so cold that ice could be cold-trapped in them, much like it is in the permanently shadowed regions at the actual poles of the moon,” Lee said.

Exploring high-latitude pits on the moon might therefore offer an additional opportunity to harvest water on our lunar neighbor, Lee said.

Meanwhile, researchers have begun assessing the viability of underground lunar habitats.

Anahita Modiriasari, a postdoctoral researcher in Purdue University’s Lyles School of Civil Engineering, and her colleagues have been appraising lunar imagery, reconstructed into a 3D model to evaluate lava tubes as a potential habitat for humans on the moon. This is a task that a rover or drone could potentially accomplish on the lunar surface. 

The work is part of Purdue’s Resilient ExtraTerrestrial Habitats (RETH), a project that investigates the value of future human habitats on the moon or Mars.

“All of this collected data is vital,” Modiriasari said. “We are using it to build an advanced model of the size, strength and structural stability of the lava tube,” she said. For example, what happens during seismic activity? What would happen if a meteorite strikes? 


In another development, the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program recently awarded a Phase 3 contract to researchers developing robotic technologies to enable the exploration of lunar pits. 

The “Skylight” concept mission is led by William Whittaker of Carnegie Mellon University. The NIAC award will help Whittaker and his team flesh out ways to explore and model a lunar pit. Doing so will require fast, autonomous micro-roving, which achieves significant exploration in a single lunar daylight period.

According to Whittaker, descent into and exploration of the lunar subsurface will come, but “pit-specific” questions must first be answered from the surface: How navigable are the rims? Are there caves? Are there rappel routes? What is the morphology? 

Specifically, a mission of this type would create and downlink the first high-resolution, science-quality, 3D model of a vast planetary pit, Whittaker said.

“This [Skylight] initiative matures and transitions that technology. The technology innovations are exploration autonomy, in-situ 3D modeling, fast, far micro-roving and the aggregate means to achieve mission-in-a-week,” Whittaker said.Advertisement

The unanswered questions of lava-tube exploration aren’t just technological. Also looming large, as with all aspects of lunar resource use and settlement, are space-law issues.

“Potentially exciting research areas cannot be claimed by sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means,” said Joanne Gabrynowicz, professor emerita of space law at the University of Mississippi and editor-in-chief emerita at the Journal of Space Law.

“Doing things like digging corridors and building roads could easily be interpreted as making a claim by use or other means. This is prohibited by the Outer Space Treaty,” Gabrynowicz said. “The U.S. and all spacefaring nations are party to it. A location with high scientific value will require an international agreement regarding its use and who can access it.”

Newfound alien planet with three red suns discovered

Imagine living in a world of triple sunsets.

Scientists have used NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite to find an exoplanet with three red suns.

The exoplanet LTT 1445Ab orbits one of the three suns, all of which are described as mid-to-late-life red dwarfs. “The planet transits the primary star in the system,” researchers explain, in a paper which is available on the scientific repository arXiv.

The planet is described as having a radius that is 1.38 R_Earth, which means that it is a little over a third larger than our planet.

File image - artist's animation shows the view from a hypothetical moon in orbit around HD 188753 Ab, the first known planet to reside in a tight-knit triple-star system.

File image – artist’s animation shows the view from a hypothetical moon in orbit around HD 188753 Ab, the first known planet to reside in a tight-knit triple-star system. (NASA/JPL-Caltech) reports that the LTT 1445 Ab system is 22.5 light-years away. A light-year, which measures distance in space, equals 6 trillion miles.

A red dwarf, or “M dwarf” in astronomical terms, is “the smallest, most abundant and longest-lived type of star in our galaxy,” according to NASA.

Scientists are intrigued by the discovery of the LTT 1445 Ab system. “It is the second nearest transiting exoplanet system found to date, and the closest one known for which the primary is an M dwarf,” they explain, in their study.

The paper has been submitted to the Astronomical Journal.

An artist's depiction of the view from a moon's surface of a gas giant and three suns.

An artist’s depiction of the view from a moon’s surface of a gas giant and three suns.(Image: © NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Astronomers think they’ve spotted an alien planet with three suns on its horizon — but that still isn’t the most interesting thing about the strange new world’s sky.

Scientists found the world, which they’ve dubbed LTT 1445Ab, in data gathered by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). LTT 1445Ab orbits just one of the three stars, all of which are red dwarfs in the latter half of their lives, and the system is about 22.5 light-years away from Earth.

“If you’re standing on the surface of that planet, there are three suns in the sky, but two of them are pretty far away and small-looking,” co-author Jennifer Winters, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, told New Scientist. “They’re like two red, ominous eyes in the sky.”

Related: The Strangest Alien Planets (Gallery)CLOSEVolume 0%This video will resume in 6 seconds 

From the TESS data, the scientists believe the planet is rocky, about a third larger than Earth and is at most about 8 times as massive as our home. It’s awfully toasty on the surface — 320 degrees Fahrenheit (160 degrees Celsius) — and the planet circles one star of the triplet every 5 days.

But what’s particularly special about it is something that scientists can’t yet, but may soon be able to, characterize: its atmosphere. Because the stars in question are red dwarfs that are located reasonably close to Earth, and because the system is arranged so that the planet passes between stars and Earth, scientists may actually be able to get a glimpse of any gases surrounding the planet using telescopes based on Earth.

Astronomers can’t quite take advantage of the opportunity yet, but it’s exactly the sort of tantalizing prospect that TESS was designed to find. The instrument, which is halfway through its initial two-year survey of most of the sky, looks for planets with short years located around nearby, bright stars — the perfect targets for later instruments to peer at atmospheres.

Astronomers say a Neptune-sized planet lurks beyond Pluto

The solar system appears to have a new ninth planet. Today, two scientists announced evidence that a body nearly the size of Neptune—but as yet unseen—orbits the sun every 15,000 years. During the solar system’s infancy 4.5 billion years ago, they say, the giant planet was knocked out of the planet-forming region near the sun. Slowed down by gas, the planet settled into a distant elliptical orbit, where it still lurks today.

The claim is the strongest yet in the centuries-long search for a “Planet X” beyond Neptune. The quest has been plagued by far-fetched claims and even outright quackery. But the new evidence comes from a pair of respected planetary scientists, Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, who prepared for the inevitable skepticism with detailed analyses of the orbits of other distant objects and months of computer simulations. “If you say, ‘We have evidence for Planet X,’ almost any astronomer will say, ‘This again? These guys are clearly crazy.’ I would, too,” Brown says. “Why is this different? This is different because this time we’re right.”

Mike Brown (left) and Konstantin Batygin.
Mike Brown (left) and Konstantin Batygin.LANCE HAYASHIDA/CALTECH

Outside scientists say their calculations stack up and express a mixture of caution and excitement about the result. “I could not imagine a bigger deal if—and of course that’s a boldface ‘if’—if it turns out to be right,” says Gregory Laughlin, a planetary scientist at the University of California (UC), Santa Cruz. “What’s thrilling about it is [the planet] is detectable.”

Batygin and Brown inferred its presence from the peculiar clustering of six previously known objects that orbit beyond Neptune. They say there’s only a 0.007% chance, or about one in 15,000, that the clustering could be a coincidence. Instead, they say, a planet with the mass of 10 Earths has shepherded the six objects into their strange elliptical orbits, tilted out of the plane of the solar system.

The orbit of the inferred planet is similarly tilted, as well as stretched to distances that will explode previous conceptions of the solar system. Its closest approach to the sun is seven times farther than Neptune, or 200 astronomical units (AUs). (An AU is the distance between Earth and the sun, about 150 million kilometers.) And Planet X could roam as far as 600 to 1200 AU, well beyond the Kuiper belt, the region of small icy worlds that begins at Neptune’s edge about 30 AU.

If Planet X is out there, Brown and Batygin say, astronomers ought to find more objects in telltale orbits, shaped by the pull of the hidden giant. But Brown knows that no one will really believe in the discovery until Planet X itself appears within a telescope viewfinder. “Until there’s a direct detection, it’s a hypothesis—even a potentially very good hypothesis,” he says. The team has time on the one large telescope in Hawaii that is suited for the search, and they hope other astronomers will join in the hunt.

Killing Pluto was fun, but this is head and shoulders above everything else.Mike Brown, Caltech

Batygin and Brown published the result today in The Astronomical Journal. Alessandro Morbidelli, a planetary dynamicist at the Nice Observatory in France, performed the peer review for the paper. In a statement, he says Batygin and Brown made a “very solid argument” and that he is “quite convinced by the existence of a distant planet.”

Championing a new ninth planet is an ironic role for Brown; he is better known as a planet slayer. His 2005 discovery of Eris, a remote icy world nearly the same size as Pluto, revealed that what was seen as the outermost planet was just one of many worlds in the Kuiper belt. Astronomers promptly reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet—a saga Brown recounted in his book How I Killed Pluto.

Now, he has joined the centuries-old search for new planets. His method—inferring the existence of Planet X from its ghostly gravitational effects—has a respectable track record. In 1846, for example, the French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier predicted the existence of a giant planet from irregularities in the orbit of Uranus. Astronomers at the Berlin Observatory found the new planet, Neptune, where it was supposed to be, sparking a media sensation.

Remaining hiccups in Uranus’s orbit led scientists to think that there might yet be one more planet, and in 1906 Percival Lowell, a wealthy tycoon, began the search for what he called “Planet X” at his new observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. In 1930, Pluto turned up—but it was far too small to tug meaningfully on Uranus. More than half a century later, new calculations based on measurements by the Voyager spacecraft revealed that the orbits of Uranus and Neptune were just fine on their own: No Planet X was needed.

Yet the allure of Planet X persisted. In the 1980s, for example, researchers proposed that an unseen brown dwarf star could cause periodic extinctions on Earth by triggering fusillades of comets. In the 1990s, scientists invoked a Jupiter-sized planet at the solar system’s edge to explain the origin of certain oddball comets. Just last month, researchers claimed to have detected the faint microwave glow of an outsized rocky planet some 300 AU away, using an array of telescope dishes in Chile called the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). (Brown was one of many skeptics, noting that ALMA’s narrow field of view made the chances of finding such an object vanishingly slim.)

Brown got his first inkling of his current quarry in 2003, when he led a team that found Sedna, an object a bit smaller than both Eris and Pluto. Sedna’s odd, far-flung orbit made it the most distant known object in the solar system at the time. Its perihelion, or closest point to the sun, lay at 76 AU, beyond the Kuiper belt and far outside the influence of Neptune’s gravity. The implication was clear: Something massive, well beyond Neptune, must have pulled Sedna into its distant orbit.


That something didn’t have to be a planet. Sedna’s gravitational nudge could have come from a passing star, or from one of the many other stellar nurseries that surrounded the nascent sun at the time of the solar system’s formation.

Since then, a handful of other icy objects have turned up in similar orbits. By combining Sedna with five other weirdos, Brown says he has ruled out stars as the unseen influence: Only a planet could explain such strange orbits. Of his three major discoveries—Eris, Sedna, and now, potentially, Planet X—Brown says the last is the most sensational. “Killing Pluto was fun. Finding Sedna was scientifically interesting,” he says. “But this one, this is head and shoulders above everything else.”

Brown and Batygin were nearly beaten to the punch. For years, Sedna was a lone clue to a perturbation from beyond Neptune. Then, in 2014, Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo (a former graduate student of Brown’s) published a paper describing the discovery of VP113, another object that never comes close to the sun. Sheppard, of the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C., and Trujillo, of the Gemini Observatory in Hawaii, were well aware of the implications. They began to examine the orbits of the two objects along with 10 other oddballs. They noticed that, at perihelion, all came very near the plane of solar system in which Earth orbits, called the ecliptic. In a paper, Sheppard and Trujillo pointed out the peculiar clumping and raised the possibility that a distant large planet had herded the objects near the ecliptic. But they didn’t press the result any further.

Later that year, at Caltech, Batygin and Brown began discussing the results. Plotting the orbits of the distant objects, Batygin says, they realized that the pattern that Sheppard and Trujillo had noticed “was only half of the story.” Not only were the objects near the ecliptic at perihelia, but their perihelia were physically clustered in space (see diagram, above).

For the next year, the duo secretly discussed the pattern and what it meant. It was an easy relationship, and their skills complemented each other. Batygin, a 29-year-old whiz kid computer modeler, went to college at UC Santa Cruz for the beach and the chance to play in a rock band. But he made his mark there by modeling the fate of the solar system over billions of years, showing that, in rare cases, it was unstable: Mercury may plunge into the sun or collide with Venus. “It was an amazing accomplishment for an undergraduate,” says Laughlin, who worked with him at the time.

Brown, 50, is the observational astronomer, with a flair for dramatic discoveries and the confidence to match. He wears shorts and sandals to work, puts his feet up on his desk, and has a breeziness that masks intensity and ambition. He has a program all set to sift for Planet X in data from a major telescope the moment they become publicly available later this year.

Their offices are a few doors down from each other. “My couch is nicer, so we tend to talk more in my office,” Batygin says. “We tend to look more at data in Mike’s.” They even became exercise buddies, and discussed their ideas while waiting to get in the water at a Los Angeles, California, triathlon in the spring of 2015.

First, they winnowed the dozen objects studied by Sheppard and Trujillo to the six most distant—discovered by six different surveys on six different telescopes. That made it less likely that the clumping might be due to an observation bias such as pointing a telescope at a particular part of the sky.

Batygin began seeding his solar system models with Planet X’s of various sizes and orbits, to see which version best explained the objects’ paths. Some of the computer runs took months. A favored size for Planet X emerged—between five and 15 Earth masses—as well as a preferred orbit: antialigned in space from the six small objects, so that its perihelion is in the same direction as the six objects’ aphelion, or farthest point from the sun. The orbits of the six cross that of Planet X, but not when the big bully is nearby and could disrupt them. The final epiphany came 2 months ago, when Batygin’s simulations showed that Planet X should also sculpt the orbits of objects that swoop into the solar system from above and below, nearly orthogonal to the ecliptic. “It sparked this memory,” Brown says. “I had seen these objects before.” It turns out that, since 2002, five of these highly inclined Kuiper belt objects have been discovered, and their origins are largely unexplained. “Not only are they there, but they are in exactly the places we predicted,” Brown says. “That is when I realized that this is not just an interesting and good idea—this is actually real.”

Sheppard, who with Trujillo had also suspected an unseen planet, says Batygin and Brown “took our result to the next level. …They got deep into the dynamics, something that Chad and I aren’t really good with. That’s why I think this is exciting.”

Others, like planetary scientist Dave Jewitt, who discovered the Kuiper belt, are more cautious. The 0.007% chance that the clustering of the six objects is coincidental gives the planet claim a statistical significance of 3.8 sigma—beyond the 3-sigma threshold typically required to be taken seriously, but short of the 5 sigma that is sometimes used in fields like particle physics. That worries Jewitt, who has seen plenty of 3-sigma results disappear before. By reducing the dozen objects examined by Sheppard and Trujillo to six for their analysis, Batygin and Brown weakened their claim, he says. “I worry that the finding of a single new object that is not in the group would destroy the whole edifice,” says Jewitt, who is at UC Los Angeles. “It’s a game of sticks with only six sticks.”


At first blush, another potential problem comes from NASA’s Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a satellite that completed an all-sky survey looking for the heat of brown dwarfs—or giant planets. It ruled out the existence of a Saturn-or-larger planet as far out as 10,000 AU, according to a 2013 study by Kevin Luhman, an astronomer at Pennsylvania State University, University Park. But Luhman notes that if Planet X is Neptune-sized or smaller, as Batygin and Brown say, WISE would have missed it. He says there is a slim chance of detection in another WISE data set at longer wavelengths—sensitive to cooler radiation—which was collected for 20% of the sky. Luhman is now analyzing those data.

Even if Batygin and Brown can convince other astronomers that Planet X exists, they face another challenge: explaining how it ended up so far from the sun. At such distances, the protoplanetary disk of dust and gas was likely to have been too thin to fuel planet growth. And even if Planet X did get a foothold as a planetesimal, it would have moved too slowly in its vast, lazy orbit to hoover up enough material to become a giant.

Instead, Batygin and Brown propose that Planet X formed much closer to the sun, alongside Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Computer models have shown that the early solar system was a tumultuous billiards table, with dozens or even hundreds of planetary building blocks the size of Earth bouncing around. Another embryonic giant planet could easily have formed there, only to be booted outward by a gravitational kick from another gas giant.

It’s harder to explain why Planet X didn’t either loop back around to where it started or leave the solar system entirely. But Batygin says that residual gas in the protoplanetary disk might have exerted enough drag to slow the planet just enough for it to settle into a distant orbit and remain in the solar system. That could have happened if the ejection took place when the solar system was between 3 million and 10 million years old, he says, before all the gas in the disk was lost into space.

Hal Levison, a planetary dynamicist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, agrees that something has to be creating the orbital alignment Batygin and Brown have detected. But he says the origin story they have developed for Planet X and their special pleading for a gas-slowed ejection add up to “a low-probability event.” Other researchers are more positive. The proposed scenario is plausible, Laughlin says. “Usually things like this are wrong, but I’m really excited about this one,” he says. “It’s better than a coin flip.”

All this means that Planet X will remain in limbo until it is actually found.

Astronomers have some good ideas about where to look, but spotting the new planet won’t be easy. Because objects in highly elliptical orbits move fastest when they are close to the sun, Planet X spends very little time at 200 AU. And if it were there right now, Brown says, it would be so bright that astronomers probably would have already spotted it.

Instead, Planet X is likely to spend most of its time near aphelion, slowly trotting along at distances between 600 and 1200 AU. Most telescopes capable of seeing a dim object at such distances, such as the Hubble Space Telescope or the 10-meter Keck telescopes in Hawaii, have extremely tiny fields of view. It would be like looking for a needle in a haystack by peering through a drinking straw.

One telescope can help: Subaru, an 8-meter telescope in Hawaii that is owned by Japan. It has enough light-gathering area to detect such a faint object, coupled with a huge field of view—75 times larger than that of a Keck telescope. That allows astronomers to scan large swaths of the sky each night. Batygin and Brown are using Subaru to look for Planet X—and they are coordinating their efforts with their erstwhile competitors, Sheppard and Trujillo, who have also joined the hunt with Subaru. Brown says it will take about 5 years for the two teams to search most of the area where Planet X could be lurking.

The 8-meter Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii has a large field of view—enabling it to search efficiently for Planet X.
The 8-meter Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii has a large field of view—enabling it to search efficiently for Planet X. SUBARU TELESCOPE, NAOJ

If the search pans out, what should the new member of the sun’s family be called? Brown says it’s too early to worry about that and scrupulously avoids offering up suggestions. For now, he and Batygin are calling it Planet Nine (and, for the past year, informally, Planet Phattie—1990s slang for “cool”). Brown notes that neither Uranus nor Neptune—the two planets discovered in modern times—ended up being named by their discoverers, and he thinks that that’s probably a good thing. It’s bigger than any one person, he says: “It’s kind of like finding a new continent on Earth.”

He is sure, however, that Planet X—unlike Pluto—deserves to be called a planet. Something the size of Neptune in the solar system? Don’t even ask. “No one would argue this one, not even me.”

Used SpaceX Dragon Cargo Ship Arrives at Space Station for Record 3rd Time

The craft is delivering more than 5,000 lbs. of science gear and supplies.

SpaceX’s robotic Dragon cargo capsule arrived at the International Space Station today (July 27), ending a two-day orbital chase and setting a new record for SpaceX’s reusable spacecraft.

The Dragon, which launched Thursday (July 25) from Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station atop a two-stage Falcon 9 rocket, was captured by the space station’s huge robotic arm at 9:11 a.m. EDT (1311 GMT) as both spacecraft sailed 267 miles (430 kilometers) above the coast of southern Chile in South America.

“We want to congratulate the team spread across the globe that makes delivering a vehicle like this. It’s pretty looking at it out the window,” astronaut Nick Hague radioed to NASA’s Mission Control in Houston after capturing Dragon with the station’s robotic arm. “It’s full of science and cargo and things to keep us busy. So, the mission continues.”

SpaceX’s most-flown Dragon

This is the record third cargo delivery mission to the International Space Station (ISS) for this particular Dragon, which also ferried cargo to the station in April 2015 and December 2017. The Falcon 9 was preflown as well; the rocket’s first stage had one mission under its belt before Thursday’s launch.

Such reuse is key to SpaceX’s quest to slash the cost of spaceflight, thereby making ambitious exploration feats such as Mars colonization achievable.Blastoff! SpaceX Launches CRS-18 Mission to Space StationVolume 0% 

Dragon is carrying more than 5,000 lbs. (2,268 kilograms) of supplies and equipment up to the ISS on this trip, including 2,500 lbs. (1,135 kg) of science gear that will enable dozens of experiments aboard the orbiting lab. 

Later today, flight controllers on Earth will attach Dragon to an open berthing port on the space station by remotely controlling the outpost’s robotic arm. Astronauts will then be able to open the spacecraft and begin unloading its bounty.

Big science aboard

SpaceX CRS-18 to Space Station – Mission OverviewVolume 0% 

One of those experiments will study how microbes interact with rocks in a low-gravity environment, possibly paving the way for space “biomining” down the road. Another will attempt to fabricate human tissue using a 3D printer, and another will gauge how microgravity affects the processes of healing and tissue regeneration.

Yet another experiment will use Nickelodeon’s famous green slime to study the behavior of fluids in microgravity. ISS crewmembers will also play “slime pong” and do other fun things with the stuff, and film the activities for our viewing pleasure down here on Earth.SpaceX CRS-18 Mission – Science Experiments HighlightedVolume 0% 

Dragon also toted up another International Docking Adapter (IDA), which is designed to allow a variety of spacecraft to link up with the ISS. Such visitors will include the crew version of Dragon and Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner capsule, both of which are scheduled to start carrying astronauts in the next year or so.

The ISS already has one IDA, which a different Dragon brought up in 2016.

Dragon is scheduled to remain attached to the ISS for about a month, NASA officials said. It will then return to Earth for a Pacific Ocean splashdown, bearing a variety of science samples for researchers to study.

The current cargo mission is the 18th that SpaceX has flown under a contract with NASA.

Mike Wall’s book about the search for alien life, “Out There” (Grand Central Publishing, 2018; illustrated by Karl Tate), is out now. Follow him on Twitter@michaeldwall. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom or Facebook

GOP lawmaker says he’s ‘concerned’ over reported UFO sightings by Navy pilots

What does the US military actually know about UFOs?

Rep. Mark Walker, R-N.C., told Fox News Friday that he is “concerned” about recent reports by U.S. Navy pilots of encounters with unidentified aircraft that some have speculated could be otherworldly.

“We are concerned about it,” Walker, a member of the House Homeland Security Committee, said on “Tucker Carlson Tonight.”  “As the ranking member of terrorism and counterintelligence, we have questions. It comes down to some of the new infrared radar systems that we’re putting on some of our new jets are detecting some things out there.”

In a letter to Navy Secretary Richard Spencer earlier this month, Walker relayed his concerns and asked for more information on what he referred to as unidentified aerial phenomenon (UAP).

Specifically, Walker asked whether the Navy was still logging the reported sightings, fully investigating the origins of the accounts, and dedicating resources to track and investigate the claims.Video

Walker also asked Spencer in the letter if investigators had “found physical evidence or otherwise that substantiates these claims.”

The Pentagon confirmed the existence of a program to investigate UFOs in 2017, but it is unclear if that is still operating.

The New York Times recently reported that Navy pilots said they saw “strange objects” with “no visible engine or infrared exhaust plumes” flying at hypersonic speeds at an elevation of 30,000 feet along the East Coast.

Politico reported last month that three senators received a briefing from the Pentagon on the encounters.

“There must be theories about what these objects are what these aircraft are,” Carlson told Walker. “What’s the most plausible theory, do you think?”

“We don’t know for sure,” Walker said. “The question that we’re wanting to get to is, is this something that’s a defense mechanism from another country?”

Indian farmers shocked as ‘fireball-like’ object crashes into rice field

By Christopher Carbone | Fox News

Raw video: Meteor lights up the night sky above Alice Springs, Australia

Police security camera footage captures the moment a green fireball streaks across the sky.

A suspected meteorite crashed into a rice field in India on Monday.

According to The Guardian, the football-sized object landed with a thud and sent up smoke in the Madhubani district in Bihar state, to the surprise of local farmers.

Kapil Ashok told the Times of India that people reported seeing a “fireball-like object coming down from the sky.”

Residents later dug up the mysterious object from a 5-foot deep hole.

A villager holds the suspected meteorite.

A villager holds the suspected meteorite. (STR/AFP/Getty Images)

The probable meteorite was brownish in color and weighed about 33 pounds, the Times reports.

Ashok told the Press Trust of India it looked like a rock “but its glitter is much more than that of an unpolished stone.”

The object will be kept at the Bihar Museum at first, before it gets transferred to the Shrikrishna science center in Patna, where scientists will study it.

The mysterious object was seen by local residents and then excavated from this hole. (STR/AFP/Getty Images)

The mysterious object was seen by local residents and then excavated from this hole. (STR/AFP/Getty Images)

Meteorites, which are meteors that survive a fall to Earth, can offer a wide range of clues about the history of the solar system.

Scientists discover ‘plasma tsunamis’ are responsible for sunspots

Rolling waves of plasma known as “solar tsunamis” could be causing the sudden end of solar cycles, according to scientists.

Researchers identified so-called “terminator events” that mark the end of sunspot cycles, which could explain the process of how the sun transitions from periods of lower activity to higher activity.

The study, which was published in the journal Solar Physics, examined almost 140 years of data collected from the ground and by NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory, two spacecraft that have been staring at the sun for years.

According to CNET, as researchers observed UV light coming from the sun’s surface, they saw how bright points of light would appear at high latitudes and move toward the sun’s equator over a period of decades.

The sun's heat is extreme.

The sun’s heat is extreme. (NASA/GSFC/SDO)

Once the bright points disappear, another huge burst of activity would take place, which marks the start of the next sunspot cycle, researchers said.

“The evidence for terminators has been hidden in the observational record for more than a century, but until now, we didn’t know what we were looking for,” Scott McIntosh, an NCAR scientist who worked on both studies, said in a press statement.

Scientists have long wanted to better understand the sun’s cycles. When solar activity spikes, flares, sunspots and solar storms can impact satellites stationed near Earth and space weather.

NASA’s Solar Parker Probe is currently taking pictures and gathering information from inside the sun’s atmosphere.

LightSail 2 Deploys Solar Sail to Surf the Sun’s Rays

SAIL DEPLOYMENT COMPLETE! We’re sailing on SUNLIGHT!!!!!4,2142:17 PM – Jul 23, 2019Twitter Ads info and privacy1,269 people are talking about this

A spacecraft the size of a loaf of bread has finally turned itself into a solar sail.

On Tuesday (July 23) at about 2:47 p.m. EDT (1847 GMT), a motor onboard the small LightSail 2 cubesat began deploying the mission’s 344-square-foot (32-square-meter) solar sail, which is about the size of a boxing ring. LightSail 2 is the passion project of The Planetary Society, and the space advocacy organization wants to demonstrate that solar surfing is a viable propulsion technique for spacecraft. 

“We’re very excited to be past this huge milestone,” Jennifer Vaughn, Chief Operating Officer at The Planetary Society said during a livestream of the deployment from the spacecraft’s control center in California. “We now have a sail. It’s time to go sailing! … We now start the very difficult process of sailing in space.”

Related: Sailing on Sunbeams: LightSail 2 to Soar Higher Than Space Station CLOSEVolume 0%This video will resume in 18 seconds 

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the first successful solar sail demonstration flight — Ikaros — in May 2010 and dubbed it a “solar yacht.” This project, which deployed its sail in June 2010, proved that a thin membrane attached to a spacecraft body could propel the vehicle forward by gathering momentum from the push of the light particles, called photons, emitted by the sun. NASA also launched a small cubesat sail called Nanosail-Din November 2010.

But since then, solar sailing has been stuck in the mud. The Planetary Society’s goal for the Lightsail 2 mission was to change that, spending a year orbiting Earth powered by photons.

Planetary Society@exploreplanets · 18hReplying to @exploreplanets

DEPLOYMENT COMPLETE! Telemetry shows motor has reached target count!

View image on Twitter

Planetary Society@exploreplanets

All indications are that #LightSail2 has deployed its solar sail as planned. We will now confirm deployment was successful by downloading imagery.6381:55 PM – Jul 23, 2019Twitter Ads info and privacy181 people are talking about this

“All indications are that #LightSail2 has deployed its solar sail as planned. We will now confirm deployment was successful by downloading imagery,” The Planetary Society shared via Twitter. In another tweet that followed shortly after, the organization said they would “begin downlinking imagery on today’s remaining tracking passes to confirm.”

LightSail 2 beamed back its first views of Earth earlier this month (July 7) and The Planetary Society confirmed that the spacecraft took photos during the deployment maneuver. 

To recap: All indications are that #LightSail2 has successfully deployed its solar sail! We will begin downlinking imagery on today’s remaining tracking passes to confirm.

View image on Twitter

7342:03 PM – Jul 23, 2019Twitter Ads info and privacy211 people are talking about this

So far, the LightSail 2 mission has been running more smoothly than that of its predecessor, which experienced a software glitch just two days after launching into orbit around Earth. 

The solar-sail concept goes back almost a century, according to JAXA’s website, and solar sailing has been a passion of The Planetary Society founders going back several decades.  

“Our first project around solar sailing really started about 20 years ago with our Cosmos 1 solar sail. That mission would have been the very first space test of a solar sail,” Vaughn said during a June 20 teleconference held days before LightSail 2 launched aboard a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket on the early morning of June 25.

Science communicator Bill Nye, who leads The Planetary Society, first heard about solar sails in the famous astronomer Carl Sagan’s classroom at Cornell University 42 years ago. During the teleconference, he recalled his teacher talk enthusiastically about the idea of solar sailing.

If all continues to go well, LightSail 2 could prove the viability of using photons to propel other versions of this technology deep into the solar system.

Follow Doris Elin Salazar on Twitter @salazar_elin. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook 

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After 1.5 years of delay, India’s ambitious lunar mission launches

A model of Chandrayaan-2’s rover undergoing tests to prepare for operating in the moon’s anemic gravity. INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION

*Update, 22 July, 2:45 p.m.: India’s much-delayed Chandrayaan-2 lunar mission finally launched today on a 7-week journey to a landing site near the moon’s south pole. The launch, planned for 2018 and described in our story below, was first pushed back to later in the year to allow more tests. Then, a comprehensive review in June 2018 recommended more changes to the mission, pushing the launch to early this year, before damage to the lander legs during a test delayed it further to 14 July. All set to go, a technical snag caused the launch to be aborted 56 minutes before liftoff. But at 2:43 a.m. local time today, all went smoothly and Chandrayaan-2 set off for the moon’s previously unexplored polar regions.

Below is our original story from 31 January 2018:

BENGALURU, INDIA—Sometime this summer, a spacecraft orbiting over the moon’s far side, out of contact with controllers on Earth, will release a lander. The craft will ease to a soft landing just after lunar sunrise on an ancient, table-flat plain about 600 kilometers from the south pole. There, it will unleash a rover into territory never before explored at the surface; all previous lunar craft have set down near the equator.

That’s the ambitious vision for India’s second voyage to the moon in a decade, due to launch in the coming weeks. If Chandrayaan-2 is successful, it will pave the way for even more ambitious Indian missions, such as landings on Mars and an asteroid, as well a Venus probe, says Kailasavadivoo Sivan, chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) here. Chandrayaan-2, he says, is meant to show that India has the technological prowess “to soft land on other heavenly bodies.”

But lunar scientists have much at stake, too. “There has been a rebirth of lunar exploration across the globe, and India can’t be left behind,” says Mylswamy Annadurai, director of the ISRO Satellite Centre. Instruments aboard the lander and rover will collect data on the moon’s thin envelope of plasma, as well as isotopes such as helium-3, a potential fuel for future fusion energy reactors. The orbiter itself will follow up on a stunning discovery by India’s first lunar foray, the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter, which found water molecules on the moon in 2009. Before that, “It was kind of a kooky science to think that you’d find water” there, says James Greenwood, a cosmochemist at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. “Now, we’re arguing about how much water, and not whether it has water or not.” Cameras and a spectrometer aboard the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter could help settle that question.

The $150 million mission was originally meant to fly 3 years ago, but Russia failed to deliver a promised lander, prompting India to go it alone. Final preparations are underway on the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft, which will launch from the Sriharikota spaceport on the Bay of Bengal aboard India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle.

A landing so far from the lunar equator is especially tricky. “It is a difficult and complicated mission,” says Wu Ji, director of the National Space Science Center in Beijing. Less sunlight reaches the poles, which means the lander and rover must be parsimonious with power. The plan is to set down in a high plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N, at a latitude of about 70° south.Pole positionIf all goes to plan, India’s Chandrayaan-2 mission this summer will attempt a soft landing on an ancient high plain of the moon, some 600 kilometers from the south pole. It would be the first land-ing so far from the equator.Seeking ground truthWith spectrometers for assaying elements in theregolith, the briefcase-size rover hopes to make the most of the 14-Earth-day lunar day.Exploring lunar novaThe lander is equipped with a seismometer to listen for moonquakes and a Langmuir probe that will measure fluctuations in the wispy plasma enveloping the lunar surface.CopernicuscraterSea ofSerenityEquatorTychocraterBulk of previouslunar landingsSNSolarpanelWarmelectronicsboxNavigation cameraRoverLanding skidRampMoonChandrayaan-2 landing site nearsouthern poleRoverLanderC. BICKEL/SCIENCE

The lander will pack as much science as it can into its first lunar day—14 Earth days—as controllers may not be able to revive it after the long lunar night. The craft has a Langmuir probe to measure the moon’s plasma—a wispy layer of charged ions that may explain why the lunar regolith, or dust, has a tendency to float in the thin atmosphere. It also has a seismometer for recording moonquakes. Its seismic measurements would supplement those from the Apollo landings, because readings from high latitudes would be sensitive to signals passing through different parts of the moon. And if the seismometer is lucky enough to record a sizable quake during its operational lifetime, it might offer new evidence in a long-running debate over what the moon’s core is composed of, and whether it’s solid. “We just need more data to understand the lunar interior,” says David Kring, a planetary geologist at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas, who is not involved in the mission.

The briefcase-size rover, weighing just 25 kilograms, will also carry two spectrometers for probing the lunar surface’s elemental composition. The area is enticing, as it is thought to be made up of rocks more than 4 billion years old that solidified from the magma ocean that covered the newly formed moon. The data would be compared with those from Apollo-era missions that landed in other ancient highlands closer to the equator.

For some scientists, the most anticipated data will come from the orbiter’s water mapper. Protons in the solar wind generate hydroxyl ions when they strike oxides in the regolith. The ions drift to the poles, where they are trapped in craters as water ice, which the orbiter will inventory. Shedding light on the moon’s water circulation “is a worthwhile endeavor,” says Carle Pieters, a lunar scientist at Brown University. Locating substantial water, adds Muthayya Vanitha, Chandrayaan-2’s project director at ISRO, “could pave the way for the future habitation of the moon,” as water is a limiting factor for operating a base.

Regardless of whether Chandrayaan-2 breaks new scientific ground, a successful soft landing near the south pole will be a technical accomplishment for India, as well as a proud moment for the country. It may even benefit other countries’ moon programs. “One of NASA’s main priorities is to go [to the south pole] on a sample return mission,” Greenwood says, “so this could help us also later down the road as they give us more information as to what’s there.”

Debate intensifies over speed of expanding universe

The peak brightness of red giants in distant galaxies represents a new way to calculate the Hubble constant. ESA/HUBBLE & NASA

This week, leading experts at clocking one of the most contested numbers in the cosmos—the Hubble constant, the rate at which the universe expands—gathered in hopes that new measurements could point the way out of a brewing storm in cosmology.

No luck so far. A hotly anticipated new cosmic yardstick, reliant on red giants, has served only to muddle the debate about the actual value of the constant, and other measurements brought no resolution. “It was the craziest conference I’ve been to,” said Daniel Scolnic, an astrophysicist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. “Everyone felt like they were on this rollercoaster.”

The meeting, at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California, was the latest episode in a saga stretching back to the 1920s, when Edwin Hubble established that the farther one looks into space, the faster galaxies are speeding away from Earth. Since then, scientists have devoted entire careers to refining the rate of that flow, Hubble’s eponymous constant, or H0. But recently, the problem has hardened into a transdisciplinary dispute.

On one side are cosmologists who gather data from the greatest distances, such as a map of the big bang’s afterglow recorded by the European satellite Planck. They compare the apparent size of features in that afterglow with their actual size, as predicted by theory, to calculate an H0 of about 67. That means distant galaxies should be flying away from the Milky Way 67 kilometers per second faster for every additional megaparsec astronomers gaze out into space.

But when astronomers look at actual galaxies, using delicate chains of inferences to make up for the universe’s frustrating lack of tick marks, they get a different number. Over the past few years, a team led by Nobel laureate Adam Riess from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, has cataloged standard candles: astrophysical objects with a known brightness, whose distance can be calculated based on how bright they appear from Earth. The team uses the supernovae explosions of white dwarf stars as standard beacons to measure distances far out into the swelling universe; they calibrate the brightness of nearby supernovae by monitoring variable stars, called cepheids, in the same galaxies. The stars’ light waxes and wanes at a rate that signals their intrinsic brightness. Earlier this year, this team, dubbed SH0ES, reported an H0 of about 74, a standard-bearing measurement for the astronomers’ side.

If the discrepancy between the cosmologists and the astronomers can’t be chalked up to a subtle, hidden methodological flaw, modern physics itself could be due for a revision. Theorists, salivating at the possibility, have begun to dream up hidden ingredients in the early universe—new particles or interactions—that could patch over the gulf. But they haven’t found a fix that doesn’t cause new problems. With stakes that high, astronomers put their heads together in Santa Barbara to double and triple check the SH0ES result against other ways to measure the constant.

A team called H0LiCOW relied on gravitational lenses, freak cosmic alignments where the light from a very distant, flickering beacon called a quasar is bent into multiple images on the sky by the gravity of another, intervening galaxy. Each image is formed by light traveling along a different path across expanding space. Because of that, though, the flickers don’t all arrive at Earth at the same time. Based on the time delays and not-so-simple geometry, the team calculated the H0 from six different such systems and came up with a value of roughly 73—“very close” to the SH0ES results, says Geoff Chih-Fan Chen, a team member at the University of California, Davis. The team didn’t check its final number—published just before the meeting on the preprint server arXiv—until the very end of its analysis to avoid bias, Chen says. “Some people will unconsciously want to get the right answer.”

One point for possible new physics. But the meeting brought a twist. On the first evening, the Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program team, led by Wendy Freedman, a veteran H0 measurer at the University of Chicago in Illinois, uploaded its own long-anticipated paper—already accepted to The Astrophysical Journal—to arXiv. Freedman’s team sought to develop a new type of standard candle. “If we put all our eggs in the cepheid basket,” Freedman says, “we will never uncover our unknown unknowns.”

Instead, her team looked toward old, swollen stars called red giants. These stars have already exhausted the hydrogen fuel at their hearts, converting it to a core of helium that sits, inert, as a hydrogen shell around the core continues to burn. The star, seen from afar, grows brighter and brighter. But at a certain, predictable limit the temperature and pressure in the core grow high enough to burn helium, too, generating an explosive flash of energy that rearranges the interior of the star, ultimately causing it to begin to dim. By finding the very brightest red giants in a distant galaxy—the ones that toe this theoretical limit—the team could use them as standard candles to calculate distances and its own H0.

One day after the paper appeared, Freedman presented the result to the meeting: a surprisingly low H0 of about 70. “It definitely felt like an album drop,” says Scolnic, a SH0ES team member. The value was stuck between the competing sides—and slightly favored the cosmologists. “It has caused at least some people to pause for a second, and say, ‘Well, maybe it’s not as clear cut,’” Freedman says. 

The SH0ES team had huddled together as soon as Freedman’s paper came out, and members were ready to question some of her team’s underlying premises after her talk. They also pointed to a trio of other, if less-precise, Hubble results debuted in Santa Barbara that rely on independent astrophysical concepts—clouds of water circling the centers of faraway galaxies, other kinds of variable stars, and the rate at which the luminosities of galaxies fall off from their center to their edge.

A combined measurement that averaged all these astronomical results together still gave a value of 73. Unless hidden biases still lurk in the data, the gulf between that value and the cosmologists’ lower number remains near or above the 5σ statistical standard physicists use to divide possible flukes from the real deal.

In Riess’s mind, at least, astronomers are nearing a consensus that the Hubble gulf highlights a true difference between the ancient and more recent universe. “You’re left with a problem, discrepancy, crisis,” Riess says. “The biggest argument at the meeting, I thought, was about what word to use.”

His own vote? Crisis.

NASA names new moon landing program Artemis after Apollo’s sister

Half a century after NASA sent men to the moon under project “Apollo,” the space agency is now working to land men — and women — on the lunar surface as part of its “Artemis” program.

NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine revealed the new moniker on Monday (May 13) during a call with reporters that was primarily focused on the budget for the newly-named moon program.

“It turns out that Apollo had a twin sister, Artemis. She happens to be the goddess of the moon,” said Bridenstine, referring to Greek mythology. “Our astronaut office is very diverse and highly qualified. I think it is very beautiful that 50 years after Apollo, the Artemis program will carry the next man — and the first woman — to the moon.”

The Artemis program, which was previously only referred to by its component names — including the Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket, Orion crew vehicle and Gateway lunar outpost — began when President Donald Trump signed Space Policy Directive 1 in 2017, directing NASA to return astronauts to the moon. 

Two years later, in March (2019), Vice President Mike Pence further defined the program by announcing a five-year deadline for the first crewed lunar landing. The 2024 mission, he said, should land at the south pole with the “first woman and the next man on the moon.”

On Monday, Trump amended his Fiscal Year 2020 budget request to account for the accelerated schedule and new mission objectives.

“As you know, the President has given our agency the bold charge to land the next man and the first woman on the lunar south pole by 2024 and now President Trump has extended his vote of confidence in our work with an amended budget request for physical year 2020,” said Bridenstine in a video address to employees. “It includes $1.6 billion in additional funding.”

“Among other things, it will allow us to accelerate our development of the Space Launch System and Orion, it will support the development of a human lunar landing system and it will support precursor capabilities on the lunar surface, including increased robotic exploration of the moon’s polar region,” he said.

To achieve the 2024 goal, NASA intends to scale back its plans for a crew-tended, multi-module Gateway to include only the basic parts needed to support an initial landing. Support for a long-term, sustainable lunar presence, as had been NASA’s priority, have been deferred to 2028.

In Greek mythology, Apollo and Artemis were the twin children of Zeus and Leto. In addition to being the goddess of the moon, Artemis was also the goddess of the hunt, with Orion her hunting companion.

The name “Apollo” was first proposed for the 1960s moon landing program by Abe Silverstein, NASA’s then-director for spaceflight development. He chose the name because of its connection to Greek mythology and its “attractive connotations,” per the space agency.

Before being assigned to the current moon landing program, NASA used Artemis to refer to a pair of lunar probes studying the moon’s interactions with the sun. The ARTEMIS — or “Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun” — spacecraft were reassigned from NASA’s THEMIS mission in 2010.

Artemis was also selected by a team competing for NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) contract. The team, led by Draper, named their proposed lunar lander Artemis-7 in honor of the Greek goddess (the number 7 signified Draper’s seventh lunar landing, having a heritage in Apollo).

The name has also been used for a European communications satellite (retired in 2017) and was the fictional title given to the first city on the moon in author Andy Weir’s (“The Martian”) 2017 science fiction novel “Artemis.” There is also a small crater in Mare Imbrium, or the Sea of Showers, on the moon.

Bridenstine said the name Artemis represents the program’s goal of inclusion.

“I have a daughter who is 11 years old and I want her to be able to see herself in the same role as the next women [who] go to the moon see themselves in today,” he said. “This is really a beautiful moment in American history and I am very proud to be a part of it.”

This jellyfish makes glowing proteins previously unknown to science


In 2017, Nathan Shaner and his colleagues found something unusual in the blue-green waters off Heron Island. As the group of scientists snorkeled the reefs surrounding the coral cay on the southern end of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, one spotted a strange-looking jellyfish in the water. The researcher netted it and brought it back to the boat. When the scientists took a closer look, they noticed that the creature’s translucent body was shot through with luminous lines of blue.

The team wasn’t looking for jellies, but Shaner—an optical probe developer at the University of California, San Diego—collected the animal anyway. “Just on a whim, we said, ‘Well, it’s kind of blue, let’s take it home,’” he says.

Now, Shaner and his team have identified five fluorescent proteins in the body of the jellyfish previously unknown to science. The discovery may lead to new techniques for exploring how genes are expressed in cells, and potentially the brightest green fluorescent protein tag ever.

When Shaner and his team got the blue jellyfish—Aequorea australis—back to the lab, they prepared a sample for analysis. After sequencing its transcriptome—the genes expressed in the jelly’s body—Shaner was surprised to find several for light-producing proteins similar to green fluorescent protein (GFP), which scientists have used for decades to track proteins in cells and even create glow-in-the-dark cats. (Three researchers won a Nobel Prize in 2008 for the discovery and for the development of GFP as a fluorescent probe.) The original protein, known as avGEP, is found in the related A. victoria jellyfish; it has led to dozens of bioengineered GFP variants, some of which glow other colors like cobalt blue and turquoise.

Original green fluorescent protein (far left) next to the nine new proteins, viewed under white light (top) and fluorescent light (bottom) NATHAN SHANER

Further analysis revealed the jelly A. australis produces five fluorescent proteins. These include two that glow green, two more that are blue under white light, and one that switches between yellow and clear when exposed to light, Shaner and colleagues report on the preprint server bioRxiv.

The researchers then took a second look at the original GFP jelly, A. victoria, and found genes for four more previously unknown fluorescent proteins. Some proteins from both jellies had narrow excitation and emission peaks, meaning they absorb and emit light at very specific wavelengths. This could make it easier to study the expression of multiple genes at once, using several different colors of fluorescent protein tags. The brightest protein, called AausFP1, was nearly five times brighter than GFP that had been enhanced for more powerful fluorescence.

“Fluorescent proteins are sort of like a Swiss army knife—everyone has a different use for them depending on what they’re trying to study,” Shaner says. “But brighter is always better for pretty much everyone. Hopefully this will actually enable people to see things that they couldn’t see before.”

Besides being bright, AausFP1 doesn’t lose its glow when exposed to light, meaning that it could be used to image cells for an extended amount of time. Shaner reports he was able to photograph the protein continuously for 2.5 days; a normal GFP variant would bleach out within just a few hours.

The study is exciting, says Joachim Goedhart, a fluorescent protein engineer at the University of Amsterdam who was not involved with the work. “They came back with a lot of different and new promising variants.” Still, he says, the fluorescent proteins will need to be modified to make them useful to scientists. Improvements could include mutations to make them smaller, brighter, and easier to manipulate within cells, he says. “There’s still some work to do.”

8 Cool Destinations That Future Mars Tourists Could Explore

By Elizabeth Howell July 24, 2018 Spaceflight 

Touring Mars

Mars is a planet of vast contrasts — huge volcanoes, deep canyons, and craters that may or may not host running water. It will be an amazing location for future tourists to explore, once we put the first Red Planet colonies into motion. The landing sites for these future missions will likely need to be flat plains for safety and practical reasons, but perhaps they could land within a few days’ drive of some more interesting geology. Here are some locations that future Martians could visit.

Olympus Mons

Olympus Mons is the most extreme volcano in the solar system. Located in the Tharsis volcanic region, it’s about the same size as the state of Arizona, according to NASA. Its height of 16 miles (25 kilometers) makes it nearly three times the height of Earth’s Mount Everest, which is about 5.5 miles (8.9 km) high.

Olympus Mons is a gigantic shield volcano, which was formed after lava slowly crawled down its slopes. This means that the mountain is probably easy for future explorers to climb, as its average slope is only 5 percent. At its summit is a spectacular depression some 53 miles (85 km) wide, formed by magma chambers that lost lava (likely during an eruption) and collapsed.

Tharsis volcanoes

While you’re climbing around Olympus Mons, it’s worth sticking around to look at some of the other volcanoes in the Tharsis region. Tharsis hosts 12 gigantic volcanoes in a zone roughly 2500 miles (4000 km) wide, according to NASA. Like Olympus Mons, these volcanoes tend to be much larger than those on Earth, presumably because Mars has a weaker gravitational pull that allows the volcanoes to grow taller. These volcanoes may have erupted for as long as two billion years, or half of the history of Mars.

The picture here shows the eastern Tharsis region, as imaged by Viking 1 in 1980. At left, from top to bottom, you can see three shield volcanoes that are roughly 16 miles (25 km) high: Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Arsia Mons. At upper right is another shield volcano called Tharsis Tholus.

Valles Marineris

Mars not only hosts the largest volcano of the solar system, but also the largest canyon. Valles Marineris is roughly 1850 miles (3000 km) long, according to NASA. That’s about four times longer than the Grand Canyon, which has a length of about 500 miles (800 km). 

Researchers aren’t sure how Valles Marineris came to be, but there are several theories about its formation. Many scientists suggest that when the Tharsis region was formed, it contributed to the growth of Valles Marineris. Lava moving through the volcanic region pushed the crust upward, which broke the crust into fractures in other regions. Over time, these fractures grew into Valles Marineris.RECOMMENDED VIDEOS FOR YOU…CLOSEVolume 0% 

The North and South Poles

Mars has two icy regions at its poles, with slightly different compositions; the north pole (pictured) was studied up close by the Phoenix lander in 2008, while our south pole observations come from orbiters. During the winter, according to NASA, temperatures near both the north and south poles are so frigid that carbon dioxide condenses out of the atmosphere into ice, on the surface. 

The process reverses in the summer, when the carbon dioxide sublimates back into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide completely disappears in the northern hemisphere, leaving behind a water ice cap. But some of the carbon dioxide ice remains in the southern atmosphere. All of this ice movement has vast effects on the Martian climate, producing winds and other effects.

Gale Crater and Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons)

Made famous by the landing of the Curiosity rover in 2012, Gale Crater is host to extensive evidence of past water. Curiosity stumbled upon a streambed within weeks of landing, and found more extensive evidence of water throughout its journey along the crater floor. Curiosity is now summiting a nearby volcano called Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons) and looking at the geological features in each of its strata.

One of Curiosity’s more exciting finds was discovering complex organic molecules in the region, on multiple occasions. Results from 2018 announced these organics were discovered inside of 3.5-billion-year-old rocks. Simultaneous to the organics results, researchers announced the rover also found methane concentrations in the atmosphere change over the seasons. Methane is an element that can be produced by microbes, as well as geological phenomena, so it’s unclear if that’s a sign of life.

Medusae Fossae

Medusae Fossae is one of the weirdest locations on Mars, with some people even speculating that it holds evidence of some sort of a UFO crash. The more likely explanation is it is a huge volcanic deposit, some one-fifth of the size of the United States. Over time, winds sculpted the rocks into some beautiful formations.But researchers will need more study to learn how these volcanoes formed Medusae Fossae. A 2018 study suggested that the formation may have formed from immensely huge volcanic eruptions taking place hundreds of times over 500 million years. These eruptions would have warmed the Red Planet’s climate as greenhouse gases from the volcanoes drifted into the atmosphere.

Recurring Slope Lineae in Hale Crater

Mars is host to strange features called recurring slope lineae, which tend to form on the sides of steep craters during warm weather. It’s hard to figure out what these RSL are, though. Pictures shown here from Hale Crater (as well as other locations) show spots where spectroscopy picked up signs of hydration. In 2015, NASA initially announced that the hydrated salts must be signs of running water on the surface, but later research said the RSL could be formed from atmospheric water or dry flows of sand.In reality, we may have to get up close to these RSL to see what their true nature is. But there’s a difficulty — if the RSL indeed host alien microbes, we wouldn’t want to get too close in case of contamination. While NASA figures out how to investigate under its planetary protection protocols, future human explorers may have to admire these mysterious features from afar, using binoculars.

‘Ghost Dunes’ in Noctis Labyrinthus and Hellas basin

Mars is a planet mostly shaped by wind these days, since the water evaporated as its atmosphere thinned. But we can see extensive evidence of past water, such as regions of “ghost dunes” found in Noctis Labyrinthus and Hellas basin. Researchers say these regions used to hold dunes that were tens of meters tall. Later, the dunes were flooded by lava or water, which preserved their bases while the tops eroded away.

Old dunes such as these show how winds used to flow on ancient Mars, which in turn gives climatologists some hints as to the ancient environment of the Red Planet. In an even more exciting twist, there could be microbes hiding in the sheltered areas of these dunes, safe from the radiation and wind that would otherwise sweep them away.

How NASA Tracked Apollo 11 to the Moon and Back with 1960s Tech

One nation’s arrival to the moon was in reality a global, far-reaching endeavor.

The 26-meter (85 feet) antenna in Honeysuckle Creek, Australia, was built in 1967 as part of the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) to support the lunar phase of the Apollo mission to the Moon.

The 26-meter (85 feet) antenna in Honeysuckle Creek, Australia, was built in 1967 as part of the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) to support the lunar phase of the Apollo mission to the Moon.(Image: © NASA)

NASA relied on the U.S. State Department to implement an extensive global network of antennas to collect radio signals from the Apollo missions, including the first moon landing, which occurred 50 years ago.

The monitoring system, collectively referred to as the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network, has gone through various incarnations: It cut its teeth tracking the first artificial satellites around Earth.

By the time the first American flew in space, NASA had already established at least 30 ground stations on five continents; several islands; and aboard ships sailing the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, according to author Sunny Tsiao in the NASA History Series digital book “Read You Loud and Clear!” (2008).

This electronic link to spacecraft and astronauts involved “two million circuit miles of land and ocean floor cables,” reaching from remote volcanic atolls to cities like Madrid and Canberra, Australia, Tsiao wrote. When antennas collected data, computers and electronics on the ground converted all of it into information that users on Earth could analyze for checks on the health and status of the spacecraft.

Once crewed spaceflight became a reality, engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland and the Manned Spacecraft (now the Johnson Space) Center in Houston created the network that tracked the Apollo astronauts to the moon and back, abbreviated as MSFN (initially known as the Mercury Space Flight Network, the “M” changed to “‘Manned” later on.) Goddard ran the entire network.

“And all that data — voice data, telemetry data — all came down and eventually went through Goddard before going to Houston,” NASA lunar scientist Noah Petro told “Goddard was and still is basically NASA’s hub for communications.” 

The State Department played a crucial role in helping NASA work with foreign governments to place antennas for the network, particularly where the U.S. was less popular and tensions ran high, Tsiao wrote.

In other cases, like Australia, countries were eager to take part and the U.S. encouraged them to take the helm of the communications stations. NASA selected the Parkes Observatory in New South Wales, Australia, to receive the remote Apollo 11 moonwalk readings, or telemetry. The 85-foot antenna at Honeysuckle Creek to the south, near the city of Canberra, received video of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin as they took the first steps on the moon. The latter instrument is still in use, but has since moved to nearby Tidbinbilla. 

Officials at NASA wanted to maintain contact with Apollo’s Eagle lunar module as it descended to the moon’s surface after emerging from behind the moon. If the Apollo 11 crew needed to abort the landing, there was a very short period of time in which they could make the decision. And the moon would be visible in Australia when this crucial moment was scheduled to occur. 

Honeysuckle Creek carried most of NASA’s communications with Armstrong and Aldrin during their extravehicular activity. The most crucial of those communications were biomedical data from the astronauts’ Portable Life Support System backpacks. Most of the data from the Columbia command module, which carried astronaut Michael Collins, traveled to the 26-meter antenna at Tidbinbilla. 

These telescopes are now part of the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex. The CDSCC supports NASA’s Deep Space Network, which now receives information from spacecraft much farther away in the solar system, including the Voyager probes that have crossed into interstellar space. 

Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins recalls drinking coffee during ‘lonely’ Moon landing orbit


Apollo 11’s Michael Collins reflects on historic Moon landing: ‘We were just regular astronauts’

Michael Collins may not be a household name like his fellow Apollo 11 crewmembers Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, but he played a pivotal role in the success of the epic mission.

When Armstrong and Aldrin were taking their famous first steps on the Moon on July 20, 1969, Collins was orbiting 60 miles above them in the mission’s command module.

Each time the Columbia Command Module orbited the Moon, he would lose contact with Mission Control in Houston for more than 40 minutes at a time. As a result, he has often been described as “the loneliest person in the universe.”


This, however, could not be further from the truth, he explained during an interview with Bob Cabana, the director of NASA’s Kennedy Space Center on Tuesday. “I was always asked ‘wasn’t I the loneliest person?’” he said. “The answer was ‘no, I felt fine’.”

1. Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11, 1969: The crew of the Apollo 11 mission -- from left Neil Armstrong, Mission Commander, Michael Collins, Lt. Col. USAF, and Edwin Eugene Aldrin, also known as Buzz Aldrin, USAF Lunar Module pilot. In all, 12 Americans walked on the moon from 1969 to 1972.

1. Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11, 1969: The crew of the Apollo 11 mission — from left Neil Armstrong, Mission Commander, Michael Collins, Lt. Col. USAF, and Edwin Eugene Aldrin, also known as Buzz Aldrin, USAF Lunar Module pilot. In all, 12 Americans walked on the moon from 1969 to 1972. (NASA)

Collins, a former U.S. Air Force fighter pilot and experimental test pilot had spent a lot of time flying airplanes by himself. Additionally, the extensive training undertaken by the Apollo 11 astronauts meant that he was extremely familiar with the Command Module. “I trusted my surroundings,” he said.

“It was perfectly enjoyable, I had hot coffee, I had music if I wanted it,” Collins added. “I was not one iota lonely … it was 40-something minutes of peace and quiet.”


After spending a total of 21 hours and 36 minutes on the Moon, Armstrong and Aldrin’s lunar module lifted off and docked with Collins’ Command Module almost four hours later.

File photo - Photograph of the pilot Michael Collins at Apollo 11 Command Module, practicing docking hatch removal from CM simulator at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, June 28, 1969. Image courtesy National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

File photo – Photograph of the pilot Michael Collins at Apollo 11 Command Module, practicing docking hatch removal from CM simulator at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, June 28, 1969. Image courtesy National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (Photo by Smith Collection/Gado/Getty Images)

Fifty years after the incredible events of Apollo 11, Collins paid tribute to Armstrong, who died in 2012. “The Neil that I usually think about is not Neil flying to the Moon and back, although he did a superb job as the mission commander.”

Rather, Collins recalls Armstrong’s incredible ability to share the experiences of Apollo 11 following the crew’s return to Earth. Although something of an introvert, Armstrong wowed audiences during the “Giant Leap” global goodwill tour undertaken by the Apollo 11 astronauts and their wives from Sept. 29 to Nov. 5, 1969.


“He was a masterful speaker,” he said. “He would have the audience feeling they had almost climbed aboard Columbia with us by the time he had finished his speech.”

Collins, who had been the pilot of the Gemini 10 mission in 1966, explained that he turned down an opportunity to be the commander of Apollo 17.

“That would be another three years of living in dingy hotels,” he said, noting that he did not want to be separated from his “wonderful” wife and young children.

The interview at Kennedy Space Center’s launch pad 39A commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch on July 16, 1969.

Russia launches major new telescope into space after delays

This morning at 8:31 AM (EST) @roscosmos successfully launched their Spektr-RG mission on a Proton rocket. Now the space observatory can begin operation and study distant galaxies!
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MOSCOW – A Russian Proton-M rocket successfully delivered a cutting-edge space telescope into orbit Saturday after days of launch delays, Russia’s space agency said.

Roscosmos said the telescope, named Spektr-RG, was delivered into a parking orbit before a final burn Saturday that kicked the spacecraft out of Earth’s orbit and on to its final destination: the L2 Lagrange point.

A Russian Proton-M rocket takes off from the launch pad at Russia's space facility in Baikonur, Kazakhstan.

A Russian Proton-M rocket takes off from the launch pad at Russia’s space facility in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. (Roscosmos Space Agency Press Service photo via AP)

Lagrange points are unique positions in the solar system where objects can maintain their position relative to the sun and the planets that orbit it. Located 0.93 million miles from Earth, L2 is particularly ideal for telescopes such as Spektr-RG.

If all goes well, the telescope will arrive at its designated position in three months, becoming the first Russian spacecraft to operate beyond Earth’s orbit since the Soviet era. The telescope aims to conduct a complete x-ray survey of the sky by 2025, the first space telescope to do so.

The Russian accomplishment comes as the U.S. space agency NASA celebrates the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing on July 20, 1969.

Russian space science missions have suffered greatly since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. Budget cuts have forced the Russian space program to shift toward more commercial efforts.

A Russian Mars probe, called Mars 96, failed to leave Earth’s orbit in 1996. A later attempt to send a probe to Mars, called Fobos-Grunt, suffered a similar fate in 2011.

Work on Spektr-RG telescope began in the 1980s but was scrapped in the 1990s. Spektr-RG was revived in 2005 and redesigned to be smaller, simpler and cheaper.

In its modern form, the project is a close collaboration between Russian and German scientists, who both installed telescope equipment aboard the Russian spacecraft.

Meet the Ploonets! Runaway Moons with Delusions of Planethood Get Astronomy’s Cutest Name Ever

An artist's illustration of a potentially habitable exomoon orbiting a giant planet in a distant solar system.

An artist’s illustration of a potentially habitable exomoon orbiting a giant planet in a distant solar system.

What do you call a runaway exomoon with delusions of planethood? You call it a “ploonet,” of course.

Scientists had previously proposed the endearing term “moonmoons” to describe moons that may orbit other moons in distant solar systems. Now, another team of researchers has coined the melodious nickname “ploonet” for moons of giant planets orbiting hot stars; under certain circumstances, these moons abandon those orbits, becoming satellites of the host star.

The former moon is then “unbound” and has an orbit like a planet’s — ergo, a ploonet.

Related: Top 10 Amazing Moon Facts

Ploonets — and all exomoons, for that matter — have yet to be detected. But ploonets may produce light signatures that planet-hunting telescopes could identify, researchers reported in a new study. Their findings were published June 27 in the preprint journal arXiv and have not been peer-reviewed.

For the study, the scientists created computer models to test scenarios that might transform a planet-orbiting moon into a star-orbiting ploonet. The researchers found that if a moon is circling a type of exoplanet known as a “hot Jupiter” — a massive gas giant close to a star — the gravitational tug of war between star and planet could be powerful enough to wrest the moon from its planetary orbit and send the object circling around the star instead.

Orbiting a nearby star would be stressful for a tiny ploonet; during its transit, the ploonet’s atmosphere could evaporate and the world would lose some of its mass, creating a distinctive signature in the light emitted from the star’s vicinity, the study said. That’s the signature that telescopes might be able to detect.

In fact, recent observations of mysterious light emissions around faraway hot stars could be explained by the appearance, and drawn-out deaths, of wayward ploonets, the study said.

Some ploonets could sustain their orbits for hundreds of millions of years. By accreting material from the disk of dust and gas around its star, a ploonet could even build up its body until it eventually became a small planet, the study authors wrote.

However, most ploonets would likely be relatively short-lived, the simulations showed. The majority of the endearingly named objects disappeared within a million years and never became planets; instead, they disintegrated during collisions with their former host planets, were gobbled up by stars in acts of “planetary cannibalism” or were ejected from orbit into space, the researchers reported.

Atmosphere of midsize planet revealed by Hubble, Spitzer

Two NASA space telescopes have identified the detailed chemical ‘fingerprint’ of a planet between the sizes of Earth and Neptune. No planets like this can be found in our own solar system, but they are common around other stars.

This artist’s illustration shows the theoretical internal structure of the exoplanet GJ 3470 b. It is unlike any planet found in the Solar System. Weighing in at 12.6 Earth masses the planet is more massive than Earth but less massive than Neptune. Unlike Neptune, which is 3 billion miles from the Sun, GJ 3470 b may have formed very close to its red dwarf star as a dry, rocky object. It then gravitationally pulled in hydrogen and helium gas from a circumstellar disk to build up a thick atmosphere. The disk dissipated many billions of years ago, and the planet stopped growing. The bottom illustration shows the disk as the system may have looked long ago. Observation by NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes have chemically analyzed the composition of GJ 3470 b’s very clear and deep atmosphere, yielding clues to the planet’s origin. Many planets of this mass exist in our galaxy.Credit: NASA, ESA, and L. Hustak (STScI)

Two NASA space telescopes have teamed up to identify, for the first time, the detailed chemical “fingerprint” of a planet between the sizes of Earth and Neptune. No planets like this can be found in our own solar system, but they are common around other stars.

The planet, Gliese 3470 b (also known as GJ 3470 b), may be a cross between Earth and Neptune, with a large rocky core buried under a deep, crushing hydrogen-and-helium atmosphere. Weighing in at 12.6 Earth masses, the planet is more massive than Earth but less massive than Neptune (which is more than 17 Earth masses).

Many similar worlds have been discovered by NASA’s Kepler space observatory, whose mission ended in 2018. In fact, 80% of the planets in our galaxy may fall into this mass range. However, astronomers have never been able to understand the chemical nature of such a planet until now, researchers say.

By inventorying the contents of GJ 3470 b’s atmosphere, astronomers are able to uncover clues about the planet’s nature and origin.

“This is a big discovery from the planet-formation perspective. The planet orbits very close to the star and is far less massive than Jupiter — 318 times Earth’s mass — but has managed to accrete the primordial hydrogen/helium atmosphere that is largely ‘unpolluted’ by heavier elements,” said Björn Benneke of the University of Montreal in Canada. “We don’t have anything like this in the solar system, and that’s what makes it striking.”

Astronomers enlisted the combined multi-wavelength capabilities NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes to do a first-of-a-kind study of GJ 3470 b’s atmosphere.

This was accomplished by measuring the absorption of starlight as the planet passed in front of its star (transit) and the loss of reflected light from the planet as it passed behind the star (eclipse). All told, the space telescopes observed 12 transits and 20 eclipses. The science of analyzing chemical fingerprints based on light is called “spectroscopy.”

“For the first time we have a spectroscopic signature of such a world,” said Benneke. But he is at a loss for classification: Should it be called a “super-Earth” or “sub-Neptune?” Or perhaps something else?

Fortuitously, the atmosphere of GJ 3470 b turned out to be mostly clear, with only thin hazes, enabling the scientists to probe deep into the atmosphere.

“We expected an atmosphere strongly enriched in heavier elements like oxygen and carbon which are forming abundant water vapor and methane gas, similar to what we see on Neptune,” said Benneke. “Instead, we found an atmosphere that is so poor in heavy elements that its composition resembles the hydrogen/helium-rich composition of the Sun.”

Other exoplanets, called “hot Jupiters,” are thought to form far from their stars and over time migrate much closer. But this planet seems to have formed just where it is today, said Benneke.

The most plausible explanation, according to Benneke, is that GJ 3470 b was born precariously close to its red dwarf star, which is about half the mass of our Sun. He hypothesizes that essentially it started out as a dry rock and rapidly accreted hydrogen from a primordial disk of gas when its star was very young. The disk is called a “protoplanetary disk.”

“We’re seeing an object that was able to accrete hydrogen from the protoplanetary disk but didn’t run away to become a hot Jupiter,” said Benneke. “This is an intriguing regime.”

One explanation is that the disk dissipated before the planet could bulk up further. “The planet got stuck being a sub-Neptune,” said Benneke.

NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope will be able to probe even deeper into GJ 3470 b’s atmosphere, thanks to Webb’s unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared. The new results have already spawned great interest from American and Canadian teams developing the instruments on Webb. They will observe the transits and eclipses of GJ 3470 b at light wavelengths where the atmospheric hazes become increasingly transparent.

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency). NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy in Washington, D.C.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena. Space operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at IPAC at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

First photo of Einstein’s ‘spooky action at a distance’ phenomenon captured

First photo of Einstein’s ‘spooky action at a distance’ phenomenon captured Jasper Hamill

(Photographer: University of Glasgow) Scientists have captured the first photograph of a mysterious phenomenon which Albert Einstein once described as ‘spooky action at a distance’.

The image is of a strong form of quantum entanglement, where two particles interact with each other and share their physical states for an instant – no matter how great the distance which separates them.

This connection is known as Bell entanglement and underpins the field of quantum mechanics. Paul-Antoine Moreau, of the University of Glasgow’s School of Physics and Astronomy, said: ‘The image we’ve managed to capture is an elegant demonstration of a fundamental property of nature, seen for the very first time in the form of an image.

‘It’s an exciting result which could be used to advance the emerging field of quantum computing and lead to new types of imaging.’ Einstein thought quantum mechanics was ‘spooky’ because of the instantaneousness of the apparent remote interaction between two entangled particles.

This seemed incompatible with elements of his special theory of relativity. Scientist Sir John Bell later formalised this concept by describing a strong form of entanglement exhibiting this feature.

Bell entanglement is today being harnessed in practical applications like quantum computing and cryptography, however it has never before been captured in a single image. The team of physicists from the University of Glasgow described how they recorded the phenomenon in a photo for the first time.

They devised a system which fires a stream of entangled photons from a quantum source of light at ‘non-conventional’ objects – displayed on liquid-crystal materials which change the phase of the photons as they pass through.

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NASA’s Hubble telescope detects supermassive black hole that defies theoretical models

NASA’s Hubble telescope has recently discovered a supermassive black hole that defies existing theories about the universe, a report said.

The black hole, which is about 250 million times heavier than the sun, lies at the heart of the spiral galaxy NGC 3147 and is 140 million light-years from Earth.

The Hubble telescope has detected a supermassive black hole that technically shouldn't exist, according to new findings. 

The Hubble telescope has detected a supermassive black hole that technically shouldn’t exist, according to new findings. (

Spotted around the black hole was a thin “accretion disk” containing debris and gas rapidly pacing around the edge, according to findings published Thursday in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The black hole was unusual in that its gravitational pull was not capturing the disk of material, which was moving at 10 percent the speed of light, according to the journal.

Lead author Stefano Bianchi said it’s “the same type of disk we see in objects that are 1,000 or even 100,000 times more luminous.”

“The predictions of current models for gas dynamics in very faint active galaxies clearly failed,” Bianchi added.

Black hole concept (stock image).Credit: © vchalup / Adobe Stock

As if black holes weren’t mysterious enough, astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have found an unexpected thin disk of material furiously whirling around a supermassive black hole at the heart of the magnificent spiral galaxy NGC 3147, located 130 million light-years away.

The conundrum is that the disk shouldn’t be there, based on current astronomical theories. However, the unexpected presence of a disk so close to a black hole offers a unique opportunity to test Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity. General relativity describes gravity as the curvature of space and special relativity describes the relationship between time and space.

“We’ve never seen the effects of both general and special relativity in visible light with this much clarity,” said Marco Chiaberge of the European Space Agency, and the Space Telescope Science Institute and Johns Hopkins University, both in Baltimore, Maryland, a member of the team that conducted the Hubble study.

“This is an intriguing peek at a disk very close to a black hole, so close that the velocities and the intensity of the gravitational pull are affecting how the photons of light look,” added the study’s first author, Stefano Bianchi of Università degli Studi Roma Tre, in Rome, Italy. “We cannot understand the data unless we include the theories of relativity.”

Black holes in certain types of galaxies like NGC 3147 are malnourished because there is not enough gravitationally captured material to feed them regularly. So, the thin haze of infalling material puffs up like a donut rather than flattening out in a pancake-shaped disk. Therefore, it is very puzzling why there is a thin disk encircling a starving black hole in NGC 3147 that mimics much more powerful disks found in extremely active galaxies with engorged, monster black holes.

“We thought this was the best candidate to confirm that below certain luminosities, the accretion disk doesn’t exist anymore,” explained Ari Laor of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology located in Haifa, Israel. “What we saw was something completely unexpected. We found gas in motion producing features we can explain only as being produced by material rotating in a thin disk very close to the black hole.”

The astronomers initially selected this galaxy to validate accepted models about lower-luminosity active galaxies — those with black holes that are on a meager diet of material. Models predict that an accretion disk forms when ample amounts of gas are trapped by a black hole’s strong gravitational pull. This infalling matter emits lots of light, producing a brilliant beacon called a quasar, in the case of the most well-fed black holes. Once less material is pulled into the disk, it begins to break down, becomes fainter, and changes structure.

“The type of disk we see is a scaled-down quasar that we did not expect to exist,” Bianchi said. “It’s the same type of disk we see in objects that are 1,000 or even 100,000 times more luminous. The predictions of current models for gas dynamics in very faint active galaxies clearly failed.”

The disk is so deeply embedded in the black hole’s intense gravitational field that the light from the gas disk is modified, according to Einstein’s theories of relativity, giving astronomers a unique look at the dynamic processes close to a black hole.

Hubble clocked material whirling around the black hole as moving at more than 10% of the speed of light. At those extreme velocities, the gas appears to brighten as it travels toward Earth on one side, and dims as it speeds away from our planet on the other side (an effect called relativistic beaming). Hubble’s observations also show that the gas is so entrenched in the gravitational well the light is struggling to climb out, and therefore appears stretched to redder wavelengths. The black hole’s mass is around 250 million Suns.

The researchers used Hubble’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) to observe matter swirling deep inside the disk. A spectrograph is a diagnostic tool that divides light from an object into its many individual wavelengths to determine its speed, temperature, and other characteristics at a very high precision. The astronomers needed STIS’s sharp resolution to isolate the faint light from the black-hole region and block out contaminating starlight.

“Without Hubble, we wouldn’t have been able to see this because the black-hole region has a low luminosity,” Chiaberge said. “The luminosities of the stars in the galaxy outshine anything in the nucleus. So if you observe it from the ground, you’re dominated by the brightness of the stars, which drowns the feeble emission from the nucleus.”

The team hopes to use Hubble to hunt for other very compact disks around low-wattage black holes in similar active galaxies.

The team’s paper will appear online today in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The international team of astronomers in this study consists of Stefano Bianchi (Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy); Robert Antonucci (University of California, Santa Barbara, California); Alessandro Capetti (INAF — Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Pino Torinese, Italy); Marco Chiaberge (Space Telescope Science Institute and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland); Ari Laor (Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel); Loredana Bassani (INAF/IASF Bologna, Italy); Francisco Carrera (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain); Fabio La Franca, Andrea Marinucci, Giorgio Matt, and Riccardo Middei (Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma, Italy); and Francesca Panessa (INAF Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome, Italy).

“The predictions of current models for gas dynamics in very faint active galaxies clearly failed,” Bianchi added.

Apollo 11: NASA and the ‘lost’ Moon landing tapes

50 years after the Apollo 11 mission, Neil Armstrong’s sons Mark and Rick describe the day when their father walked on the Moon.

NASA has responded to recent reports of “lost” Apollo 11 Moon landing tapes, but is adamant that no footage of the historic mission has been lost.

“With the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing approaching, reports have resurfaced that NASA lost some precious video footage of that first moonwalk,” the space agency explains, in a statement on its website. “There is no missing video footage from the Apollo 11 moonwalk,” it adds.

July 20th marks the 50th anniversary of the Moon landing.


Apollo 11 tapes are in the spotlight at the moment. A set of original videotape recordings of the Apollo 11 Moon landing that were bought for $217.77 at a government surplus auction by a former NASA intern in the 1970s will be auctioned on July 20.

FILE - In this image provided by NASA, astronaut Buzz Aldrin poses for a photograph beside the U.S. flag deployed on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission on July 20, 1969.

FILE – In this image provided by NASA, astronaut Buzz Aldrin poses for a photograph beside the U.S. flag deployed on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission on July 20, 1969. (Neil A. Armstrong/NASA via AP, File)

The former intern, Gary George, planned to sell the used tapes, which could be re-recorded, to local TV stations. They could sell for up to $2 million, according to Sotheby’s, which is running the auction.

NASA says that the footage on the tapes is already preserved. “In 2019, a one-time NASA intern is selling what he describes as videotapes of the Apollo 11 moonwalk that he bought at an auction of surplus government goods,” the space agency says on its website. “If the tapes are as described in the sale material, they are 2-inch videotapes recorded in Houston from the video that had been converted to a format that could be broadcast over commercial television and contain no material that hasn’t been preserved at NASA.”


This is not the first time that Apollo 11 tapes have made headlines.

Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong reflected in his helmet, during the moon landing in 1969.

Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong reflected in his helmet, during the moon landing in 1969. (NASA)

More than 10 years ago, NASA launched a search for, but could not locate, some of the “original” Apollo 11 data tapes, which directly recorded data transmitted from the Moon. “An intensive search of archives and records concluded that the most likely scenario was that the program managers determined there was no longer a need to keep the tapes – since all the video was recorded elsewhere – and they were erased and reused,” it explains.

According to NASA, data on the tapes, including video data, was relayed to the Manned Spaceflight Center in Houston, which is now the Johnson Space Center. “The video was recorded there and in other locations,” it said, in its statement, noting that no footage is missing.


NASA explained that data from the mission was sent from the Apollo 11 spacecraft to a ground station in California and two ground stations in Australia. This data was then retransmitted to the Manned Spaceflight Center. The ground stations also recorded the data on special 1-inch, 14-track tapes, one track of which was for video.

File photo - Commander Neil Armstrong climbs down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM) the 'Eagle' to become the first man to set foot on the Moon, during NASA's Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, July 1969. Video footage taken during the mission.

File photo – Commander Neil Armstrong climbs down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM) the ‘Eagle’ to become the first man to set foot on the Moon, during NASA’s Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, July 1969. Video footage taken during the mission.(Photo by Space Frontiers/Getty Images)

“The video footage was recorded in ‘slow scan’ — 10 video frames per second — which meant it couldn’t be directly broadcast over commercial television,” NASA explains. “The video was converted for broadcast and uplinked to a satellite, then downlinked to Houston, from which it was sent out to the world.”

In early 2005, in response to a request from NASA retirees and others, the space agency launched a search for the 14-track tapes. However, the agency couldn’t find the tapes and determined that they had most likely been erased and used again, which, it says “was standard practice at the time.”


While NASA was unable to locate the tapes, the data had already been recorded elsewhere and was saved by the agency.

File photo - a footprint from the Apollo 11 mission on the lunar surface.

File photo – a footprint from the Apollo 11 mission on the lunar surface. (Photo by NASA/Newsmakers)

“There was no video that came down slow scan that was not converted live, fed live, to Houston and fed live to the world,” said NASA Engineer Dick Nafzger, during a press conference in 2009. “So, just in case anyone thinks there is video out there that hasn’t been seen, that is not the case.”

However, the researchers did find the video that had been converted to broadcast that was higher quality than they had previously seen.


Parts of the video were restored, enhanced for viewing in HD, and released in July 2009.

Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin plant an American flag on the surface of the moon in July 1969.

Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin plant an American flag on the surface of the moon in July 1969. (NASA)

Only 12 men, all Americans, have walked on the Moon and the Apollo program continues to be a source of fascination.


Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins recently revealed a previously unseen photo of the famous Moon landing crew members that he “found at the bottom of a box.”

Massive, kilometer-sized asteroid was just found orbiting the Sun

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A newly found asteroid has been spotted orbiting the Sun, whizzing past the star every 151 days, the shortest orbit of any space rock on record.

Known as 2019 LF6, this asteroid is quite large, at 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) across and is part of the “Atira” asteroid group, 20 space rocks whose orbits fall entirely within Earth’s.

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“Thirty years ago, people started organizing methodical asteroid searches, finding larger objects first, but now that most of them have been found, the bigger ones are rare birds,” says Quanzhi Ye, a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech who discovered 2019 LF6, in a statement.

(Credit: California Institute of Technology)

(Credit: California Institute of Technology)

“LF6 is very unusual both in orbit and in size—its unique orbit explains why such a large asteroid eluded several decades of careful searches,” Ye added. “We only have about 20 to 30 minutes before sunrise or after sunset to find these asteroids.”

One other Atira asteroid has been discovered by the ZTF team, 2019 AQ3, which orbits the Sun approximately once every 165 days.

“Both of the large Atira asteroids that were found by ZTF orbit well outside the plane of the solar system,” NASA JPL research and Caltech professor Tom Prince said in the statement. “This suggests that sometime in the past they were flung out of the plane of the solar system because they came too close to Venus or Mercury.”

In its elliptical 151-day orbit, 2019 LF6 goes out past Venus and at certain points, comes closer to the Sun than Mercury does. By comparison, Mercury orbits the Sun every 88 days, Venus’ orbit takes 225 days and Earth orbits the Sun every 365 days.

2019 LF6 was discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility, “a state-of-the-art camera” at the Palomar Observatory. It looks at the sky rapidly, searching for objects such as exploding stars or moving asteroids, which made it the perfect tool to look for the Atria asteroids.

Mysterious X-37B military space plane caught on camera

The U.S. Air Force's X-37B robotic space plane in orbit, as photographed by satellite tracker Ralf Vandebergh.

The U.S. Air Force’s X-37B robotic space plane in orbit, as photographed by satellite tracker Ralf Vandebergh.

Skywatcher and satellite tracker Ralf Vandebergh of the Netherlands recently caught a rare glimpse of the U.S. Air Force’s secretive X-37B space plane.

Vandebergh said he’d been hunting for the robotic spacecraft for months and finally managed to track it down in May. But it took a bit longer to get photos of the vehicle.

“When I tried to observe it again [in] mid-June, it didn’t meet the predicted time and path,” Vandebergh explained. “It turned out to have maneuvered to another orbit. Thanks to the amateur satellite observers’ network, it was rapidly found in orbit again, and I was able to take some images on June 30 and July 2.”

The X-37B’s recent passes were almost overhead, Vandebergh added.

Related: The X-37B Space Plane: 6 Surprising Facts

Beyond expectations

The X-37B, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), looks like a miniature version of NASA’s retired space shuttle.

“It is really a small object, even at only 300 kilometers [186 miles] altitude, so don’t expect the detail level of ground-based images of the real space shuttle,” Vandebergh said.

Taking this into consideration, the newly captured imagery far exceeded Vandebergh’s expectations.

“We can recognize a bit of the nose, payload bay and tail of this mini-shuttle, with even a sign of some smaller detail,” he said.

Vandebergh captured the photos using a 10-inch F/4,8 aperture Newtonian telescope with an Astrolumina ALccd 5L-11 mono CMOS camera. Tracking was fully manual through a 6×30 finderscope, he said.

Classified duties

The X-37B has winged past 666 days of flight on this latest mission, which is called OTV-5 because it’s the fifth flight for the program.

OTV-5 began on Sept. 7, 2017, with a launch atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 boosterfrom NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida.

X-37B missions are carried out under the auspices of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office, and mission control for OTV flights is handled by the 3rd Space Experimentation Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado. This squadron oversees operations of the X-37B and is tagged as the Air Force Space Command’s premier organization for space-based demonstrations, pathfinders and experiment testing, gathering information on objects high above Earth and carrying out other intelligence-gathering duties.

And that may be a signal as to what the robotic craft is doing — both looking down at Earth and upward.

Related: US Air Force’s Secretive X-37B Space Plane (Infographic)

Flight-duration record

Each X-37B mission has set a new flight-duration record for the program:

Most X-37B payloads are classified, and the Air Force releases few details about the spacecraft’s orbit and activities. The only OTV-5 payload that Air Force officials have revealed is the Advanced Structurally Embedded Thermal Spreader, or ASETS-II.

Developed by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), this cargo is testing experimental electronics and oscillating heat pipes for long-duration stints in the space environment.

According to AFRL, the payload’s three primary science objectives are to measure initial on-orbit thermal performance, to measure long duration thermal performance, and to assess any lifetime degradation.

Tarmac touchdown

Exactly when OTV-5 will end is unknown.

The last X-37B mission touched down at KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility — a first for the program. All prior missions had ended with a tarmac touchdown at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

Several website postings say that the sixth mission, OTV-6, is planned for this year on a United Launch Alliance Atlas-5(501) rocket. Launch would be from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Space Launch Complex-41.

Reusable vehicles

The classified X-37B program “fleet” consists of two known reusable vehicles, both of which were built by Boeing.

The X-37B vehicles were built at several Boeing locations in Southern California, including Huntington Beach, Seal Beach and El Segundo. The program transitioned to the U.S. Air Force in 2004 after earlier funded research efforts by Boeing, NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

The military space plane is 29 feet (8.8 meters) long and 9.6 feet (2.9 m) tall, with a wingspan of nearly 15 feet (4.6 m).

The X-37B’s payload bay, which measures 7 feet (2.1 m) by 4 feet (1.2 m), can be outfitted with a robotic arm. The spacecraft has a launch weight of 11,000 lbs. (4,990 kilograms) and is powered on orbit by gallium-arsenide solar cells with lithium-ion batteries.

Prior to OTV-5’s launch, Randy Walden, the director of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office, said there were many firsts on this mission, making it a milestone for the program. “It is our goal to continue advancing the X-37B OTV so it can more fully support the growing space community,” he said at the time.

The Air Force also noted that OTV-5 was launched into, and will be landed from, a higher-inclination orbit than prior missions to further expand the X-37B’s orbital envelope.

Scientists create a ‘lifelike’ material that has metabolism and can self-reproduce

An innovation may lead to lifelike evolving machines.

  • Scientists at Cornell University devise a material with 3 key traits of life.
  • The goal for the researchers is not to create life but lifelike machines.
  • The researchers were able to program metabolism into the material’s DNA.

Cornell University engineers have created an artificial material that has three key traits of life — metabolism, self-assembly and organization. The engineers were able to pull off such a feat by using DNA in order to make machines from biomaterials that would have characteristics of alive things.

Dubbing their process DASH for “DNA-based Assembly and Synthesis of Hierarchical” materials, the scientists made a DNA material that has metabolism — the set of chemical processes that convert food into energy necessary for the maintenance of life.

The goal for the scientists is not to create a lifeform but a machine with lifelike characteristics, with Dan Luo, professor of biological and environmental engineering, pointing out “We are not making something that’s alive, but we are creating materials that are much more lifelike than have ever been seen before.”

The major innovation here is the programmed metabolism that is coded into the DNA materials. The set of instructions for metabolism and autonomous regeneration allows the material to grow on its own.

In their paper, the scientists described the metabolism as the system by which “the materials comprising life are synthesized, assembled, dissipated, and decomposed autonomously in a controlled, hierarchical manner using biological processes.”

To keep going, a living organism must be able to generate new cells, while discarding old ones and waste. It is this process that the Cornell scientists duplicated using DASH. They devised a biomaterial that can arise on its own from nanoscale building blocks. It can arrange itself into polymers first and into mesoscale shapes after.

The DNA molecules in the materials were duplicated hundreds of thousands of times, resulting in chains of repeating DNA that were a few millimeters in length. The solution with the reaction was injected into a special microfluidic device that facilitated biosynthesis.

This flow washed over the materials, causing DNA to synthesize its own strands. The material even had its own locomotion, with the front end growing while the tail end was degrading, making it creep forth.

This fact allowed the researchers to have portions of the materials competing against each other.

“The designs are still primitive, but they showed a new route to create dynamic machines from biomolecules. We are at a first step of building lifelike robots by artificial metabolism,” explained Shogo Hamada, the lead and co-corresponding author of the paper as well as a lecturer and research associate in the Luo lab. “Even from a simple design, we were able to create sophisticated behaviors like racing. Artificial metabolism could open a new frontier in robotics.”

Credit: Shogo Hamada / Cornell UniversityGenerated DASH patterns.

The material that was created lasted for two cycles of synthesis and degradation but the longevity can be extended, think the researchers. This could lead to more generations of the material, eventually resulting in a “lifelike self-reproducing machines,” said Hamada.

He also foresees that the system can result in a “self-evolutionary possibility.”

Next for the material? The engineers are looking at how to get it to react to stimuli and be able to seek out light or food all on its own. They also want it to be able to avoid harmful stimuli.