Oreo builds asteroid-proof bunker above permafrost line, fills it with cookies and powdered milk

The company provided the bunker’s coordinates, just in case

Oreos will survive the apocalypse.

The threat of asteroids striking the Earth and causing a global catastrophe has inspired some groups to build bunkers to not only protect survivors, but also to ensure the safety of certain plants and animals. Now, the makers of Oreo have ensured that the popular snack will live past any possible asteroid strikes.

In a video published on its YouTube page, Oreo says it was inspired by the Global Seed Vault in Svalbard, Norway. According to the seed vault’s website, it is a storage facility for various seeds that has been designed and built to withstand both natural and manmade disasters. It is located above the permafrost line, placing it in the Arctic Circle.

According to Oreo’s video, the vault was also created specifically in regards to Asteroid 2018VP1, which has a slight chance of hitting Earth’s atmosphere on Nov. 2. While it’s unlikely that the asteroid would even survive entering the atmosphere, Oreo apparently isn’t taking any chances.

Oreo explained the vault and how it’s protecting Oreos on its Twitter account. According to one post, “Each cookie pack is wrapped in protective Mylar which can keep our cookies safe from temperatures of -80°F to 300°F.”

In another post, Oreo explains that the vault also contains vials of powdered milk, which reportedly only need to have powdered snow added before being ready to have Oreos dunked in it.

Each cookie pack is wrapped in protective Mylar which can keep our cookies safe from temperatures of -80°F to 300°F.

Oreo has provided the coordinates of the vault, 78°08’58.1″N, 16°01’59.7″E, which places it near the Svalbard seed vault. According to a tweet from the cookie maker, however, there is a coded lock on the door, ensuring the contents are saved for an apocalyptic event.

Asteroid samples escaping from jammed NASA spacecraft

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA spacecraft is stuffed with so much asteroid rubble from this week’s grab that it’s jammed open and precious particles are drifting away in space, scientists said Friday.

Scientists announced the news three days after the spacecraft named Osiris-Rex briefly touched asteroid Bennu, NASA’s first attempt at such a mission.

The mission’s lead scientist, Dante Lauretta of the University of Arizona, said Tuesday’s operation 200 million miles away collected far more material than expected for return to Earth — in the hundreds of grams. The sample container on the end of the robot arm penetrated so deeply into the asteroid and with such force, however, that rocks got sucked in and became wedged around the rim of the lid.

In this image taken from video released by NASA, the Osiris-Rex spacecraft touches the surface of asteroid Bennu on Tuesday, Oct. 20, 2020. (NASA via AP)

In this image taken from video released by NASA, the Osiris-Rex spacecraft touches the surface of asteroid Bennu on Tuesday, Oct. 20, 2020. (NASA via AP)

Scientists estimate the sampler pressed as much as 19 inches (48 centimeters) into the rough, crumbly, black terrain.

“We’re almost a victim of our own success here,” Lauretta said at a hastily arranged news conference.

Lauretta said there is nothing flight controllers can do to clear the obstructions and prevent more bits of Bennu from escaping, other than to get the samples into their return capsule as soon as possible.

So, the flight team was scrambling to put the sample container into the capsule as early as Tuesday — much sooner than originally planned — for the long trip home.

“Time is of the essence,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, chief of NASA’s science missions.

This is NASA’s first asteroid sample-return mission. Bennu was chosen because its carbon-rich material is believed to hold the preserved building blocks of our solar system. Getting pieces from this cosmic time capsule could help scientists better understand how the planets formed billions of years ago and how life originated on Earth.

Scientists were stunned — and then dismayed — on Thursday when they saw the pictures coming from Osiris-Rex following its wildly successful touch-and-go at Bennu two days earlier.

A cloud of asteroid particles could be seen swirling around the spacecraft as it backed away from Bennu. The situation appeared to stabilize, according to Lauretta, once the robot arm was locked into place. But it was impossible to know exactly how much had already been lost.

The requirement for the $800 million-plus mission was to bring back a minimum 2 ounces (60 grams).

Regardless of what’s on board, Osiris-Rex will still leave the vicinity of the asteroid in March — that’s the earliest possible departure given the relative locations of Earth and Bennu. The samples won’t make it back until 2023, seven years after the spacecraft rocketed away from Cape Canaveral.

Osiris-Rex will keep drifting away from Bennu and will not orbit it again, as it waits for its scheduled departure.

Because of the sudden turn of events, scientists won’t know how much the sample capsule holds until it’s back on Earth. They initially planned to spin the spacecraft to measure the contents, but that maneuver was canceled since it could spill even more debris.

“I think we’re going to have to wait until we get home to know precisely how much we have,” Lauretta told reporters. “As you can imagine, that’s hard. … But the good news is we see a lot of material.”

Japan, meanwhile, is awaiting its second batch of samples taken from a different asteroid, due back in December.

NASA is going to unveil an ‘exciting new discovery’ about the moon

The discovery will ‘inform’ the agency’s Artemis program work, Fox News has learned

Ahead of NASA’s return to the moon in 2024, the space agency is teasing an “exciting new discovery” about the celestial satellite.

According to a source familiar with the situation, the discovery, to be announced Monday at noon EST, is expected to “inform” the agency’s Artemis program work.

“This new discovery contributes to NASA’s efforts to learn about the Moon in support of deep space exploration,” NASA said in a statement.

The announcement will be made from NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), described as “the world’s largest airborne observatory.”

SOFIA is a modified Boeing 747 airplane capable of flying high in Earth’s atmosphere, allowing for its 9-foot telescope to get a “clear view of the universe and objects in our solar system.” It is able to observe infrared wavelengths that are capable of detecting “phenomena impossible to see with visible light,” NASA added.

NASA’s Artemis program aims to land American astronauts on the moon by 2024 and establish a sustainable human presence.

In 2019, NASA revealed details of its vision for the Artemis Moon Lander that will return American astronauts to the lunar surface. Artemis will also make history by landing the first woman on the moon.

Initial mission capability for 2024 involves landing two astronauts on the moon’s South Pole. Astronauts will live and work out of the lander for six and a half days, according to NASA.

After Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the moon on July 20, 1969, only 10 more men, all Americans, have walked on the lunar surface. The last NASA astronaut to set foot on the moon was Apollo 17 Mission Commander Gene Cernan, on Dec. 14, 1972.

Elon Musk sets 4-year timeline for SpaceX Mars mission, says there’s a ‘fighting chance’

The timelines are ‘only guesses,’ but Musk is determined to see his team achieve them

Elon Musk has said he could see a 4-year timeline for SpaceX’s first Mars mission. 

SpaceX founder and CEO Musk spoke at length on Friday during the International Mars Society Convention via Zoom. Musk discussed the timeline his company is following for its first uncrewed mission to Mars, saying that the company is on track to launch the mission in as little as four years. 

“I think we have a fighting chance of making that second Mars transfer window,” Musk said, which would put a launch in 2024. 

He said that making that launch date would require the development team to innovate more and that the company will “probably lose a few ships.” 

The company is trying to develop Starship, which is designed to carry dozens of people on long-range flight so that it would be possible to colonize Mars. Starship will be “the world’s most powerful launch vehicle ever developed,” according to the SpaceX website

Prototype vehicles have so far made low-altitude “hops” from the SpaceX test facility in Texas, CNET reported

The company may also be able to demonstrate orbital refueling capabilities by as soon as 2022, which will allow test flights to the moon. 

“These are just guesses,” Musk cautioned, however. 

Additionally, SpaceX has no plans to develop any bases on Mars, Space.com reported. The company is concerned only with transportation, with its goal to ferry cargo and crew to Mars – someone else will need to develop the means of colonization. 

SETI Just Searched 10 Million Stars For Alien Civilizations

Following the results of our previous low frequency searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), directed toward the Galactic Centre and the Orion Molecular Cloud (Galactic Anticentre), we report a new large-scale survey toward the Vela region with the lowestupper limits thus far obtained with the MWA. Using the MWA in the frequency range 98-128 MHz over a 17 hour period, a 400 deg2 field centered on the Vela Supernova Remnant was observed with a frequency resolution of 10 kHz.

Within this field there are six known exoplanets. At the positions of these exoplanets, we searched for narrow band signals consistent with radio transmissions from intelligent civilizations. No unknown signals were found with a 5σ detection threshold. In total, across this work plus our two previous surveys, we have now examined 75 known exoplanets at low frequencies.

In addition to the known exoplanets, we have included in our analysis the calculation of the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) upper limits toward over 10 million stellar sources in the Vela field with known distances from Gaia (assuming a 10 kHz transmission bandwidth). Using the methods of Wright et al. (2018) to describe an eight dimensional parameter space for SETI searches, our survey achieves the largest search fraction yet, two orders of magnitude higher than the previous highest (our MWA Galctic Anticentre survey), reaching a search fraction of ∼ 2×10−16. We also compare our results to previous SETI programs in the context of the EIRPmin – Transmitter Rate plane.

Our results clearly continue to demonstrate that SETI has a long way to go. But, encouragingly, the MWA SETI surveys also demonstrate that large-scale SETI surveys, in particular for telescopes with a large field-of-view, can be performed commensally with observations designed primarily for astrophysical purposes.

NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft makes historic touchdown on asteroid Bennu

The mission is NASA’s first to retrieve a sample from the surface of an asteroid.

NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft made its historic touchdown on asteroid Bennu Tuesday, retrieving a sample from the space rock that will be returned to Earth.

OSIRIS-REx reached the surface of Bennu at 6:11 p.m. EDT in a mission that NASA says will help unlock the secrets of the solar system. The “tag” or sample collection, was complete at 6:11 p.m. EDT and the spacecraft left the asteroid’s surface.

The Lockheed Martin-built van-sized spacecraft successfully reached a tennis court-sized crater named Nightingale. Boulders as big as buildings loomed over the touchdown zone. OSIRIS-REx used a robotic arm to grab the sample from Bennu, which is about 200 million miles from Earth.

“This is history, this is amazing,” said Dante Lauretta, Professor of Planetary Science and Cosmochemistry at the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, and OSIRIS-REx Principal Investigator, just after touchdown. “It’s almost hard to process, everything that’s happening right now.”

The mission is NASA’s first to retrieve a sample from the surface of an asteroid.

This illustration shows NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descending towards asteroid Bennu to collect a sample of the asteroid’s surface.

This illustration shows NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descending towards asteroid Bennu to collect a sample of the asteroid’s surface. (Credits: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona)

OSIRIS-REx will also provide information that could help protect our planet from a possible collision with Bennu.

Bennu is about as tall as the Empire State Building, and could potentially threaten Earth in the next century, according to NASA. “Bennu has a 1:2700 chance of impacting Earth in the late 2100s, but this mission will also help us learn more about protecting ourselves if necessary,” the agency explains on its website.

OSIRIS-REx, which stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, launched in September 2016 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The spacecraft reached Bennu in December 2018.

The craft is scheduled to depart Bennu next year and will deliver the asteroid sample to Earth on Sep. 24, 2023.

NASA recently revealed that parts of another asteroid, Vesta, have been spotted on the surface of Bennu.

In April 2019, Japan’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft successfully “bombed” asteroid Ryugu in the name of scientific research.

Earlier in 2019, Hayabusa2 briefly touched down onto Ryugu and fired a scientific research “bullet” into the space rock.

‘Election Day’ asteroid – not a political omen, but it is a warning

This is but the latest in an escalating series of asteroid close-calls and fly-bys

NASA predicts asteroid will pass by Earth on November 2.

Have you heard about the “Election Day” asteroid?

NASA is predicting it will give the Earth a very close shave the day before the presidential election. And while it is not being sent by a “Higher” or evenly “Heavenly Power” smiting us for either reelecting President Donald J. Trump or the prospect of a President Joe Biden, it is a warning we should take extremely seriously.

Worried about COVID-19, the environment, jobs, immigration, terrorism, health care, crime or the cost of education? An asteroid hit will erase all of those worries and quite possibly, all of us.

This is but the latest in an escalating series of asteroid close-calls and fly-bys. Sooner or later – it is the way of the cosmos – one won’t miss. Until that life-destroying impact, the only protection the Earth has at the moment is pure dumb luck. 

A direct hit by an even a relatively “small” asteroid could destroy a city, a state or a region. And yet, we continue to basically ignore this threat. Why?

Generally, because asteroids are not seen as a tangible vote-getter for most politicians, a ratings-winner for much of the media, or even a multi-million-dollar government-grant producer for many scientists.

But an asteroid screaming toward Earth with a minuscule chance of impact hours before the election between Trump and Biden? Cue the clicks.

The asteroid named 2018VP1 is estimated to only be about 7 feet in length. Even if it did manage to impact the Earth, all or most of it would burn up in the atmosphere. But again, that is all part of the “dumb-luck” strategy.

Less than two weeks ago, on Aug. 15, an asteroid the size of an automobile missed the Earth by about 1,800 miles. Not only was it completely undetected, but it was the closest call we have ever had without being impacted.

What’s the big deal?

Well, according to NASA, there are about 25,000 of these near-Earth asteroids from 6 to 460 feet wide. With only 8,000 of them detected. Worse, NASA believes there are tens of millions of these 33 to 65 feet in diameter asteroids zooming around undiscovered within 30 million miles of Earth.

To put it into terms everyone could understand, last year NASA simulated a 200-foot asteroid slamming into New York City. Their study concluded it would have hit New York with 1,000 times the destructive force of the nuclear weapon dropped on Hiroshima in World War II and instantly killed upwards of 1.3 million people.

That’s the “big deal.”

Humanity must spread out into the solar system to increase its chance of survival.   

For a real-life example of the destructive force from a “small” asteroid, we only have to look at what happened to Siberia on June 30, 1908, when an asteroid less than 150 feet across exploded in the air. It leveled more than 80 million trees and laid waste to an area roughly twice the size of New York City.

Last year in a major study – mostly ignored by our leaders – from Johns Hopkins titled: “Breaking up is hard to do. Asteroids are stronger, harder to destroy than previously thought,” the scientists warned, “It is only a matter of time before these questions go from being academic to defining our response to a major threat.”

All of which begs the question: What are our realistic responses to this major threat?

NASA’s Planetary Science Advisory Committee is now rightfully shifting much of its attention to asteroid detection and deflection. Next year, it will launch the “Double Asteroid Redirection Test” (DART). The goal of this planetary defense mission is to collide with a tiny moon orbiting the near-Earth asteroid “Didymos” to test a technique to deflect its orbit.

That’s better than nothing but any real defense of our planet is still years to decades away and everyone at NASA and within our government knows that.

So then what?

The late professor Stephen Hawking rightfully stressed: “I believe that life on Earth is at an ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster. … I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.”

Hawking specifically singled out asteroids as a major threat to our existence.

At the moment, the eggs holding all of humanity are in the Earth basket.  The United States, Russia and China are now looking to establish bases on the Moon before looking toward Mars. 

If anything, we must accelerate those plans. Humanity must spread out into the solar system to increase its chance of survival.   

The “Election Day” asteroid is putting an exclamation point on that terrifying reality. Time to focus.

Are UFOs Actually Travelling Between Dimensions Instead Of Space?

While most people – believers and sceptics alike – almost certainly imagine space travel and aliens when they hear the term UFO, there are many other theories on offer. Might these strange sightings be of time-travellers for example instead of aliens? Might they be nothing more than “phantom” sightings – some type of “rip” in space time that allows us to peek into the future or the distant past?

One particularly interesting alternative theory is that what we are actually witnessing are visitations from another dimension, as opposed to from another planet.UFO entering a portal

UFO entering a portal

In June 2016 a story appeared online that appeared to show a UFO entering a portal before completely disappearing into it. The event was captured on video and from start to finish lasted less than sixty seconds. A low rumbling sound is also audible throughout the recording.

You can check out the original video posting of this alleged incident below.

Declassified FBI Document Speaks Of “Inter-Dimensional” Beings

There have been many declassified FBI documents relating to UFO activity, and at least one refers to “beings” from another dimension to ours.

What is interesting about the document is that it is dated 8th July 1947 – the same date as the Roswell UFO incident. The document writer acknowledges that the claims made within it are likely to be ignored, but the fact that they are put in front of the FBI in order to investigate is intriguing enough.Cover page of the FBI UFO Section 1 document.

Cover page of the FBI UFO Section 1 document.

Perhaps one of the key parts of the declassified paper is the nine bullet points that highlight key information regarding “a very serious situation that may develop at any time with regard to the “flying saucers”. These can be found on page 22 of the declassified file in question. In full these bullet points read:

  1. Part of their disks carry crews, others are under remote control
  2. Their mission is peaceful. The visitors contemplate settling on this planet.
  3. These visitors are human-like but much larger in size.
  4. They are NOT excarnate earth people, but come from their own world.
  5. They do NOT come from any “planet” as we use the word, but from an etheric planet which interpenetrates with our own and is not perceptible to us.
  6. The bodies of the visitors, and the craft, automatically materialize on entering the vibratory rate of our dense matter.
  7. The disks possess a type of radiant energy or ray, which will easily disintergrate any attacking ship. They re-enter the etheric at will, and so simply disappear from our vision without trace.
  8. The region from which they come is not the “astral plane”, but corresponds to the Lokas or Talas. Students of osoteric matters will understand these terms.
  9. They probably can not be reached by radio, but probably can be by radar, if a signal system can be devised for that (apparatus).

The idea that these UFOs are not travelling through space to get here, but simply materializing in to our plain of perception upon hitting the “vibratory rate” is one that has been theorised before this document was made public.

These are the 10 best locations in the US for UFO enthusiasts to buy a home

Myrtle Beach, S.C., is the No. 1 place in the country to spot an alien and with the lowest median home price

The Department of Defense announces the creation of a new UFO task force, which will analyze the nature and origin of ‘unidentified aerial phenomena’; insight from Nick Pope, UFO expert and former U.K. Ministry of Defense official.

For those hoping to see a UFO in the U.S., a research firm has compiled a list of the 10 best locations in the country for UFO enthusiasts to buy a home.

National real estate marketplace ISoldMyHouse.com has revealed that Myrtle Beach, S.C., is the No. 1 place in the country to spot an alien and with the lowest median home price, just under $168,000. Other cities in the top three are Columbus, Ohio. ($174,109) and Philadelphia, Pa., with a median home price of $187,772.

“Whether you’re scientifically minded or not, the topic of aliens is one that fascinates a lot of people all over the world,” Kris Lippi, owner of ISoldMyHouse.com, said in a statement. “It’s also a topic that excites a lot of people so I’m happy to be able to provide this sort of information for those who want to or have turned their interest in the extraterrestrial into a passion.”

The Southwest is also prominently featured on the list, with Houston, Texas; Albuquerque, N.M.; and Phoenix, Tuscon and Mesa, Ariz., also on the list.

The firm, which used data from the National UFO Reporting Center, noted that each of these cities has had “at least” 27 reported UFO sightings and some with more than 100.

The research was conducted after a separate survey revealed that more than half of the country believes in extraterrestrial beings and nearly one-third think they have visited our planet.

In February, a separate research firm revealed 61% of survey respondents want the U.S. government to declassify the country’s so-called X-files and 58% said they believe the government “actively investigates extraterrestrial life.”

In a September 2019 Gallup poll, Americans said they are becoming increasingly skeptical of UFOs but think the government knows more than it is letting on.

2020 has been a banner year for UFO discussion in the U.S., as more news comes out of Washington.

In August, the Pentagon announced the establishment of a new task force to investigate reports of “unidentified aerial phenomenon.” The task force was established after the U.S. Navy publicly released videos from the mid-2000s that reenergized the discussion. 

In September, the National UFO Reporting Center said UFO spottings were up 51% year-over-year, topping 5,000 incidents.

How Nuclear rockets will get us to Mars and beyond

They were developed more than 40 years ago and then almost forgotten but now Nuclear Rockets are set to make a comeback and possibly provide the fastest way to get around our solar system to date. Here look at their history and how they could be used in the next decade or so.

nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is a type of thermal rocket where the heat from a nuclear reaction, often nuclear fission, replaces the chemical energy of the propellants in a chemical rocket. In an NTR, a working fluid, usually liquid hydrogen, is heated to a high temperature in a nuclear reactor and then expands through a rocket nozzle to create thrust. The external nuclear heat source theoretically allows a higher effective exhaust velocity and is expected to double or triple payload capacity compared to chemical propellants that store energy internally.

NTRs have been proposed as a spacecraft propulsion technology, with the earliest ground tests occurring in 1955. The US maintained an NTR development program through 1973, when it was shut down to focus on Space Shuttle development. Although more than ten reactors of varying power output have been built and tested, as of 2019, no nuclear thermal rocket has flown.[1]

Nuclear power in space applications that have flown include the fission-electric SNAP-10A and TOPAZ series satellites and radioisotope thermoelectric generators.[citation needed]

Whereas all early applications for nuclear thermal rocket propulsion used fission processes, research in the 2010s has moved to fusion approaches. The Direct Fusion Drive project at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is one such example, although “energy positive fusion has remained elusive”. In 2019, the US Congress approved US$125 million in development funding for nuclear thermal propulsion rockets.

‘Very high risk’ defunct Russian satellite and Chinese rocket body will collide tonight: report

A collision could cause more debris to orbit the earth

Dr. Derrick Pitts explains the danger

Experts believe a defunct Russian satellite and a discarded Chinese rocket could smash into each other high above the earth on Thursday, according to reports.

Satellite-tracking company LeoLabs on Wednesday said the defunct objects could come within 39 feet of each other and that there was a 10% chance that they could still collide around 8:56 p.m. ET. The company deemed the potential crash to be a “very high risk.”

“This event continues to be very high risk and will likely stay this way through the time of closest approach,” LeoLabs tweeted.

Jonathan McDowell, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, said the two objects were a defunct Soviet navigation satellite called Parus [Kosmos 2004] that launched in 1989 and a Chinese rocket stage.

As of Tuesday, the objects — with a mass of roughly three metric tons — were in low-Earth orbit at an altitude of around 615 miles, LeoLabs said.

Because the objects are located high above the ground, they don’t pose a risk to anyone on earth. However, a crash could cause more debris to orbit the earth, which could increase the risk of future collisions.

The debris could also threaten astronauts.

“If this turns into a collision, it’s probably thousands to tens of thousands of new pieces of debris that is going to cause a headache for any satellite that’s going out into upper low-Earth orbit, or even beyond,” said Dan Ceperley, the CEO of LeoLabs, according to Business Insider. “It’s maybe a much bigger problem than a lot of people realize.”

As of February this year, there are 128 million debris objects in orbit, according to the European Space Agency. Roughly 34,000 of those objects are greater than 10 cm. 

Researchers At Large Hadron Collider Are Confident To Make Contact With Parallel Universe In Days

The astoundingly complex LHC “atom smasher” at the CERN center in Geneva, Switzerland, are fired up to its maximum energy levels ever in an endeavor to identify – or perhaps generate – tiny black holes.

 If successful a very new universe is going to be exposed – modifying completely not only the physics books but the philosophy books too. 

It is even probable that gravity from our own universe may “transfer” into this parallel universe, researchers at the LHC say. The experiment is assured to accentuate alarmist critics of the LHC, many of whom initially warned the high energy particle collider would start the top of our universe with the making a part of its own. But up to now Geneva stays intact and securely outside the event horizon.

No doubt the LHC has been outstandingly successful. First researchers proved the existence of the mysterious Higgs boson “God particle” – a key building block of the cosmos – and it’s seemingly well on the thanks to revealing ‘dark matter’ – a previously untraceable theoretical prospect that’s now believed to form up the foremost of matter within the universe. But next week’s experimentation is reflected to be a game-changer. Mir Faizal, one in every of the three-strong group of physicists behind this experiment, said: “Just as many parallel sheets of paper, which are two-dimensional objects [breadth and length] can exist during a dimension [height], parallel universes can even exist in higher dimensions.”

“We predict that gravity can leak into extra dimensions, and if it does, then miniature black holes are produced at the LHC. Normally, when people consider the multiverse, they think about the many-worlds interpretation of quantum physics, where every possibility is actualized. This can not be tested so it’s a philosophy and not science. this is often not what we mean by parallel universes. What we mean is real universes in extra dimensions. “As gravity can effuse of our universe into the additional dimensions, such a model may be tested by the detection of mini black holes at the LHC.”

“We have calculated the energy at which we expect to detect these mini black holes in ‘gravity’s rainbow’ [a new scientific theory].”

“If we do detect mini black holes at this energy, then we are going to know that both gravity’s rainbow and additional dimensions are correct.”

When the LHC is fired up the energy is calculated in Tera electron volts – a TeV is 1,000,000,000,000, or one trillion, electron Volts. Up to now, the LHC has sought for mini black holes at energy levels below 5.3 TeV. But the foremost recent study says this is often too low.

Instead, the model forecasts that black holes might form at energy levels of no but 9.5 TeV in six dimensions and 11.9 TeV in 10 dimensions.

Trump to take ‘good, strong look’ at whether there are UFOs

The president replied, ‘Well, I’m gonna have to check on that’

In an interview with Fox News on Sunday, President Trump said he would take a “good, strong look” at whether UFOs exist.

“Sunday Morning Futures” host Maria Bartiromo asked Trump point-blank whether the objects exist, to which the president replied, “Well, I’m gonna have to check on that. I mean, I’ve heard that. I heard that two days ago, so I’ll check on that. I’ll take a good, strong look at that.”

In June, the president’s son Donald Trump Jr. asked his father if he would let us know if there are aliens, adding it’s “the only thing I really want to know” and if he would ever “open up Roswell and let us know what’s going on there.”

“So many people ask me that question,” the president told his son at the time. “There are millions and millions of people that want to go there, that want to see it. I won’t talk to you about what I know about it but it’s very interesting. But Roswell is a very interesting place with a lot of people that would like to know what’s going on.”

When pressed further about declassifying information about Roswell, the president said, “I’ll have to think about that one.”

President Trump had expressed skepticism of the existence of UFOs in previous interviews.

In August, the Pentagon created a task force to investigate UFOs following several unexplained incidents that have been observed by the U.S. military.

The Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force was launched by Deputy Defense Secretary David Norquist, boosting an effort by the Office of Naval Intelligence, officials said.

It’s not yet clear how this new task force relates to the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program (AATIP), Nick Pope, a former employee and UFO investigator for Britain’s Ministry of Defense, told Fox News over the summer. Pope cited “former defense officials” with the group who were involved in work relating to UFOs.

The AATIP was formed in 2007 at the behest of former Sen. Harry Reid, Fox News previously reported. It reportedly ceased operations in 2012, but in 2017 the New York Times reported the Department of Defense was still investigating potential episodes of unidentified flying objects.

The creation of the task force follows inquiries from lawmakers about the subject. In June, Florida Sen. Marco Rubio, acting chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, instructed the director of national intelligence, the secretary of defense and other agency heads to compile data on “unidentified aerial phenomenon.”

“The Committee remains concerned that there is no unified, comprehensive process within the federal government for collecting and analyzing intelligence on unidentified aerial phenomena, despite the potential threat,” lawmakers wrote in a report.

“The Committee understands that the relevant intelligence may be sensitive; nevertheless, the Committee finds that the information sharing and coordination across the Intelligence Community has been inconsistent, and this issue has lacked attention from senior leaders,” they added.

In July, the New York Times reported that a small group of government officials, including Reid, and scientists believe objects of “undetermined origin” have crashed to Earth and been retrieved. The publication cited Eric W. Davis, an astrophysicist who worked as a subcontractor and a consultant for the Pentagon UFO program. Davis, who now works for defense contractor Aerospace Corporation, said he gave briefings on the recovery of unexplained objects to staff members of the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Senate Intelligence Committee, on Oct. 21 and Oct. 23, 2019.

In April, the Pentagon officially released videos of “unidentified aerial phenomena,” known as “FLIR1,” “Gimbal” and “GoFast,” previously captured by Navy aircraft. The footage had circulated in the public for years. They were originally released to the New York Times and to The Stars Academy of Arts & Science, headed by Blink-182 co-founder Tom DeLonge.

After the videos were released publicly, DeLonge said “UFOs are real” in a since-deleted tweet.

The first video of the unidentified object was taken on Nov. 14, 2004, and shot by the F-18’s gun camera. The second video was shot on Jan. 21, 2015, and shows another aerial vehicle with pilots commenting on how strange it is.

The third video was also taken on Jan. 21, 2015, but it is unclear whether the third video was of the same object or a different one.

Seven months prior, in September 2019, the U.S. Navy first acknowledged the videos contained unidentified objects, specifically using “unidentified aerial phenomena” terminology.

NASA Is Tracking A Huge Human Made Asteroid Heading Towards Earth’s Orbit

Fake asteroid? NASA expert IDs mystery object as old rocket

This Sept. 20, 1966 photo provided by the San Diego Air and Space Museum shows an Atlas Centaur 7 rocket on the launchpad at Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA’s leading asteroid expert, Paul Chodas, speculates that asteroid 2020 SO, as it is formally known, is actually a Centaur upper rocket stage that propelled NASA’s Surveyor 2 lander to the moon in 1966 before it was discarded. (Convair/General Dynamics Astronautics Atlas Negative Collection/San Diego Air and Space Museum via AP)

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) — The jig may be up for an “asteroid” that’s expected to get nabbed by Earth’s gravity and become a mini-moon next month.

Instead of a cosmic rock, the newly discovered object appears to be an old rocket from a failed moon-landing mission 54 years ago that’s finally making its way back home, according to NASA’s leading asteroid expert. Observations should help nail its identity.

“I’m pretty jazzed about this,” Paul Chodas told The Associated Press. “It’s been a hobby of mine to find one of these and draw such a link, and I’ve been doing it for decades now.”

Chodas speculates that asteroid 2020 SO, as it is formally known, is actually the Centaur upper rocket stage that successfully propelled NASA’s Surveyor 2 lander to the moon in 1966 before it was discarded. The lander ended up crashing into the moon after one of its thrusters failed to ignite on the way there. The rocket, meanwhile, swept past the moon and into orbit around the sun as intended junk, never to be seen again — until perhaps now.

A telescope in Hawaii last month discovered the mystery object heading our way while doing a search intended to protect our planet from doomsday rocks. The object promptly was added to the International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center’s tally of asteroids and comets found in our solar system, just 5,000 shy of the 1 million mark.

The object is estimated to be roughly 26 feet (8 meters) based on its brightness. That’s in the ballpark of the old Centaur, which would be less than 32 feet (10 meters) long including its engine nozzle and 10 feet (3 meters) in diameter.NASA administrator says space missions on track despite COVID-19 

What caught Chodas’ attention is that its near-circular orbit around the sun is quite similar to Earth’s — unusual for an asteroid.

“Flag number one,” said Chodas, who is director of the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California.

The object is also in the same plane as Earth, not tilted above or below, another red flag. Asteroids usually zip by at odd angles. Lastly, it’s approaching Earth at 1,500 mph (2,400 kph), slow by asteroid standards.

As the object gets closer, astronomers should be able to better chart its orbit and determine how much it’s pushed around by the radiation and thermal effects of sunlight. If it’s an old Centaur — essentially a light empty can — it will move differently than a heavy space rock less susceptible to outside forces.

That’s how astronomers normally differentiate between asteroids and space junk like abandoned rocket parts, since both appear merely as moving dots in the sky. There likely are dozens of fake asteroids out there, but their motions are too imprecise or jumbled to confirm their artificial identity, said Chodas.

Sometimes it’s the other way around.

A mystery object in 1991, for example, was determined by Chodas and others to be a regular asteroid rather than debris, even though its orbit around the sun resembled Earth’s.

Even more exciting, Chodas in 2002 found what he believes was the leftover Saturn V third stage from 1969′s Apollo 12, the second moon landing by NASA astronauts. He acknowledges the evidence was circumstantial, given the object’s chaotic one-year orbit around Earth. It never was designated as an asteroid, and left Earth’s orbit in 2003.

The latest object’s route is direct and much more stable, bolstering his theory.

“I could be wrong on this. I don’t want to appear overly confident,” Chodas said. “But it’s the first time, in my view, that all the pieces fit together with an actual known launch.”

And he’s happy to note that it’s a mission that he followed in 1966, as a teenager in Canada.NASA sending first woman, next man to the moon in 2024 

Asteroid hunter Carrie Nugent of Olin College of Engineering in Needham, Massachusetts, said Chodas’ conclusion is “a good one” based on solid evidence. She’s the author of the 2017 book “Asteroid Hunters.”

“Some more data would be useful so we can know for sure,” she said in an email. “Asteroid hunters from around the world will continue to watch this object to get that data. I’m excited to see how this develops!”

The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics’ Jonathan McDowell noted there have been “many, many embarrassing incidents of objects in deep orbit … getting provisional asteroid designations for a few days before it was realized they were artificial.”

It’s seldom clear-cut.

Last year, a British amateur astronomer, Nick Howes, announced that an asteroid in solar orbit was likely the abandoned lunar module from NASA’s Apollo 10, a rehearsal for the Apollo 11 moon landing. While this object is likely artificial, Chodas and others are skeptical of the connection.

Skepticism is good, Howes wrote in an email. “It hopefully will lead to more observations when it’s next in our neck of the woods” in the late 2030s.

Chodas’ latest target of interest was passed by Earth in their respective laps around the sun in 1984 and 2002. But it was too dim to see from 5 million miles (8 million kilometers) away, he said.

He predicts the object will spend about four months circling Earth once it’s captured in mid-November, before shooting back out into its own orbit around the sun next March.

Chodas doubts the object will slam into Earth — “at least not this time around.”

Astronomers Directly Image Gas-Giant Exoplanet Beta Pictoris c

Astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope Interferometer have captured the first direct images of the recently-discovered giant planet Beta Pictoris c.

This image shows Beta Pictoris b and c embedded in the dusty disk around Beta Pictoris. Image credit: Axel Quetz / MPIA Graphics Department.

Beta Pictoris (β Pictoris) is the second brightest star in the constellation Pictor, about 63 light years away from Earth.

It hosts a circumstellar disk of gas and dust and a huge number of comets, some of which were seen falling onto the star.

Beta Pictoris is orbited by at least two 20-million-year-old giant planets: Beta Pictoris b and c.

Discovered in November 2008, Beta Pictoris b is a gas giant between 10 and 11 times the mass of Jupiter.

It orbits the parent star once every 22 years at a distance of 9.8 AU (astronomical units).

Astronomers directly imaged Beta Pictoris b several times between 2013 and 2018.

Beta Pictoris c, which was discovered in 2019 using radial velocity method, has a mass of 8.2 times that of Jupiters and is much closer to its star.

It orbits at 2.7 AU and has an orbital period of roughly 1,200 days.

An artist’s impression of the Beta Pictoris system. Image credit: Axel Quetz / MPIA Graphics Department.

The first direct images of Beta Pictoris c were captured using four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the GRAVITY instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope Interferometer.

“This is the first direct confirmation of a planet detected by the radial velocity method,” said Dr. Sylvestre Lacour, an astronomer at Observatoire de Paris and ESO and leader of the ExoGRAVITY observing program.

“We used GRAVITY before to obtain spectra of other directly imaged exoplanets, which themselves already contained hints on their formation process,” said Dr. Paul Molliere, a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy.

“The brightness measurement of Beta Pictoris c, combined with its mass, is a particularly important step to constraining our planet formation models.”

“It is amazing, what level of detail and sensitivity we can achieve with GRAVITY,” said Dr. Frank Eisenhauer, an astronomer at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and lead scientist of the GRAVITY project.

“We are just starting to explore stunning new worlds, from the supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy to planets outside the Solar System.”

The findings appear in two papers in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

_____

M. Nowak et al. 2020. Direct confirmation of the radial-velocity planet β Pictoris c. A&A 642, L2; doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039039

A.M. Lagrange et al. 2020. Unveiling the β Pictoris system, coupling high contrast imaging, interferometric, and radial velocity data. A&A 642, A18; doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202038823

How to become a space trillionaire

The race to the riches of asteroids is on, with several private companies vying for funding to become the first space miners. Andrew Glester digs into the issues involved in making money from asteroids

“I’ll make a prediction right now. The first trillionaire will be made in space.”

So said Texas senator Ted Cruz, shortly after a bill was signed to increase NASA’s budget for 2018. To untrained ears, his claim would have sounded extraordinary. It might even have stretched credulity for those familiar with the challenges of space. But on closer inspection, Cruz was not being that revolutionary. Peter Diamandis – founder of the X Prize competition to encourage tech developments – made the same prediction back in 2008 and expanded on the theme in his 2015 book Bold. As for how those trillionaires will make their riches from space, both he and Neil DeGrasse Tyson – the US astrophysicist and TV host – reckon it will be done by mining asteroids.

Progress is already under way. The first asteroid company, Planetary Resources, was founded in 2012 by Diamandis, Chris Lewicki and others in Washington. Within a year the US company Deep Space Industries was set up by Rick Tumlinson, Stephen Cover and a host of others. A handful more firms have since been established, and while some are admittedly are less serious than others, the race to the riches of space is on.

NASA prototype

Despite the existence of such firms and Cruz’s declaration, however, Donald Trump’s 2018 NASA budget cancelled the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which planned to bring an asteroid into an orbit around Earth where it could be studied and mined a lot more easily than one in the asteroid belt. A NASA spokesperson told me the ARM team is ensuring that the key knowledge from the mission so far is not lost, but NASA pulling out has left the asteroid-mining community without a valuable learning tool and places asteroid mining firmly in the realm of the private space sector.

Nevertheless, the investment bank Goldman Sachs has reassured its clients about the financial benefits of investing in asteroid-mining companies. “The psychological barrier to mining asteroids is high, the actual financial and technological barriers are far lower,” it said in a report published last year. A Caltech study put the cost of an asteroid-mining mission at $2.6bn – perhaps not surprisingly the same estimated cost of NASA’s erstwhile ARM. It might sound a lot, but a rare-earth-metal mine has comparable set-up costs of up to $1bn and a football-field-sized asteroid could contain as much as $50bn of platinum.

There are, however, potentially major challenges for anyone wanting to mine such an asteroid. How do you get it back to Earth through the atmosphere and land it without destroying the planet? Who do you sell it to in space if you can’t get it back to Earth? And even if you can bring it to Earth, all of a sudden platinum is no longer rare. Given that common metals aren’t as expensive as rare metals, will mining an asteroid really be worth it?

Metals and water

Scientists have studied asteroids using ground-based telescopes and space missions – such as NASA’s Galileo and Dawn crafts – which together have gathered close-up imagery and data. Perhaps the most important data came from Japan’s Hayabusa, which in 2010 became the first spacecraft to have landed on an asteroid and successfully returned home with samples. These studies have revealed that there are two types of asteroids of interest to the mining community.

The first are achondrites, which are rich in platinum group metals (ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum). These precious metals gravitate to the cores of planets as they form, meaning that they are very deep down on Earth. In the turbulent early solar system, however, some burgeoning planets were smashed to pieces in collisions and became some of the achondrite asteroids that may provide a treasure trove for today’s space miners.

The other asteroids of interest are chondrites. They are perhaps the more immediately valuable, being rich in water. Astronauts need this vital resource not only as a drink and to hydrate food, but also because it is a very efficient radiation shield. Water will be precious for the Moon bases and hotels promised by today’s space entrepreneurs such as Elon Musk (founder of SpaceX) and Jeff Bezos (founder of Blue Origin).

Ceres

But water is heavy and therefore expensive to launch out of the Earth’s atmosphere. Indeed, it costs between $9000 and $43,000 to send a water bottle into space – which is why it is all recycled on the International Space Station. However, Hubble images of the largest known asteroid, Ceres, suggest that it could hold more water than our planet. Smaller asteroids hold lots too and a technique known as optical mining would use the heat from the Sun to bake the water out of the rock.

The elements of water can also be used for rocket fuel. Asteroid miners are already planning to split the water from chondrites into hydrogen and oxygen, which would serve as fuel and oxidizer respectively. They are hoping to set up fuel stations in low-Earth orbit and the asteroid belt so that spacecraft can fill up on their way to the outer planets of the solar system. Currently, around 90% of the weight of modern rockets is taken up with fuel, so if you can carry less fuel on take-off because you can fill up off-Earth, space flight becomes much cheaper.

Within our reach

But how many asteroids are potential mining hotspots? Martin Elvis, a Harvard University astrophysicist with an interest in asteroid mining, developed an equation in 2013 to estimate the number of asteroids that might be potential mining candidates with our current technology. The equation accounts for the number of asteroids within reach of today’s rocket ships, the likelihood of them being worth mining, whether it is practically feasible to mine them, and whether they would yield a profit. When he first ran the numbers back in 2013, Elvis estimated that around 10 potentially metal-rich asteroids, and 18 sufficiently water-rich, lie within our grasp.

SpaceX’s development of increasingly powerful rockets has bolstered the hopes of asteroid miners because it means we can travel further into space. But Elvis told me that recent press reports claiming he thought the successful Falcon Heavy launch on 6 February had burst open the sky to potential asteroids were wide of the mark. “I made the remark at a conference in Texas recently and the press missed off the word ‘might’, but the truth is that I haven’t run the numbers yet. We need more data before I can run the numbers again, but a wild guess might be that this new fleet of heavy rockets could increase the numbers by a factor of 10.”

Elvis was not just referring to Falcon Heavy either. Blue Origin’s New Glen rocket and, in the longer term, the New Armstrong rocket can all be added to the mix when Elvis next runs his equation. Yet even though the SpaceX rockets are boosting the hopes of asteroid miners who could one day provide his explorers with fuel and raw materials, Musk does not seem convinced. In fact, in 2003 he called asteroid mining “bogus” and, at least publicly, has not updated that view.

Amara Graps, an astrophysicist who organizes the bi-annual Asteroid Science Intersections with In-Space Mine Engineering Conference (ASIME) and founded the Latvian initiative Baltics in Space, is more optimistic. “Elon will come around. He’s a clever guy and he’s surrounded by clever people. He’ll get there but I don’t know how to reach him to sell it to him.” Half the delegates at the most recent ASIME conference, which took place in Luxembourg in April, came from asteroid-mining companies, with the rest being asteroid scientists. Indeed, Graps believes the interface between scientists and business people is essential. The asteroid scientists’ role is to provide scientific support to the companies; addressing some of the companies’ largest asteroid science questions.

Need riches to get rich

Asteroid companies have one major cash-flow issue: if there are riches in space, the miners are reliant on faithful funders to get them there in the first place. That’s why Graps believes communication is key. “Everyone is struggling in their own way,” she says. “So it helps if we can talk to each other. And share. And use our own resources more efficiently.”

Before any company reaches an asteroid, they’ll have to fill that gap in their finances with other revenue streams. The business model for asteroid-mining companies is therefore currently much more Earth-bound. Planetary Resources, for example, which uses its expertise for mining here on Earth, is still reliant on wealthy bankers. Indeed, after missing a funding milestone last year, the company laid off many of its 70 employees. Asteroid-mining companies need to convince potential funders that the claims of untold riches in space are believable and achievable.

But rather than just targeting wealthy investors, Mitch Hunter-Scullion, chief executive of the UK-based Asteroid Mining Corporation, has taken a different tack. He’s turned to crowdfunding for his first asteroid-prospecting mission, which he hopes to fire into space in 2020. “We’re launching APS-1 [Asteroid Prospecting Satellite 1] from India, because it is orders of magnitude cheaper than elsewhere,” he says. “We’re aiming to raise £2.6m through crowdfunding, which, in space terms, is not too overwhelming.” That may be true, but £2.6m will still require a lot of backing from the public for what, to many people, seems like a distant dream. If they do manage to raise the funds, he then plans to sell the data they own to raise more revenue.READ MORERocket for rocketeers

A boost for public interest might not be too far away. Although NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission has been cancelled, its OSIRIS-Rex sample-return mission to asteroid 101955 Bennu left Earth in September 2016, before Trump took office. It will reach Bennu in December this year and then return a sample to Earth in 2023. Asteroid miners will be watching closely, just as they did when Rosetta landed on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko…and then bounced along its surface.

“We knew a lot about the composition of the comet but that was still a surprise,” Graps tells me. “We need more science before we land on an asteroid to mine it. You don’t want to be bouncing off.”

Graps believes that the asteroid-mining community was distracted by the wrong thing to begin with. “I think [they] wasted time focusing on the metal-rich asteroids,” she says. Her view is shared by Planetary Resources, which puts the platinum-rich asteroids in its second wave of targets. They believe you’re better off targeting chondrites as they have water, which will be your revenue stream in the near future. You mine the water, you own the rocket fuel stations in low-Earth orbit, on the Moon and on the way to deep space. Whether it will make anyone a trillionaire is another question, however. You can use the heat of the Sun to bake the water out of the asteroid but you then need to stop it sublimating off into space. None of this is particularly cheap and you need the spacecraft to come along relatively frequently to keep your revenue streams buoyant. As Elvis says, “In space, no-one can hear you sell.”

How to be a trillionaire

Legally, nobody can own an asteroid, but the US Space Act of 2015 allows companies to own the materials they mine from bodies in space. Luxembourg passed similar laws last year and Hunter-Scullion tells me he is lobbying the UK government to follow suit. Graps is hopeful Latvia will join the party too. In fact, the country that gets the laws right might just win the most lucrative business in space. After all, if your space-mining company is making billions of pounds in space, the money will, for the foreseeable future, be spent on Earth.

There are fabulously wealthy and intelligent people who claim that they will become trillionaires from asteroid mining. Personally, I find it easier to imagine the tidal wave as their asteroid splashes down into the ocean, and the price of platinum dropping through the floor as it becomes suddenly and abundantly available. A future where the metals, rock and water that we mine in space are used in space feels more achievable. Whether that happens soon enough to make the investors of today rich is, I imagine, their big gamble. Elvis for one is convinced that asteroid mining will take place in our lifetime and gave me a top tip on how to become a space millionaire. “It’s relatively easy,” he says. “You just start with a billion.”

Moon Packed with Precious Titanium, NASA Probe Finds

This lunar mosaic shows the boundary between Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis. The relative blue color of the Tranquillitatis mare is due to higher abundances of the titanium-bearing mineral ilmenite.

This lunar mosaic shows the boundary between Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis. The relative blue color of the Tranquillitatis mare is due to higher abundances of the titanium-bearing mineral ilmenite.(Image: © NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University)

A new map of the moon has uncovered a trove of areas rich in precious titanium ore, with some lunar rocks harboring 10 times as much of the stuff as rocks here on Earth do.

The map, which combined observations in visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, revealed the valuable titanium deposits. These findings could shed light on some of the mysteries of the lunar interior, and could also lay the groundwork for future mining on the moon, researchers said.

“Looking up at the moon, its surface appears painted with shades of grey — at least to the human eye,” Mark Robinson, of Arizona State University, said in a statement. “The maria appear reddish in some places and blue in others. Although subtle, these color variations tell us important things about the chemistry and evolution of the lunar surface. They indicate the titanium and iron abundance, as well as the maturity of a lunar soil.” 

The results of the study were presented Friday (Oct. 7) at the joint meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress and the American Astronomical Society’s Division for Planetary Sciences in Nantes, France.

Mapping the lunar surface

The map of the moon’s surface was constructed using data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which has been circling the moon since June 2009. The probe’s wide angle camera snapped pictures of the surface in seven different wavelengths at different resolutions.

Since specific minerals strongly reflect or absorb different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, LRO’s instruments were able to give scientists a clearer picture of the chemical composition of the moon’s surface.

Robinson and his colleagues stitched together a mosaic using roughly 4,000 images that had been collected by the spacecraft over one month.

The researchers scanned the lunar surface and compared the brightness in the range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to visible light, picking out areas that are abundant in titanium. The scientists then cross-referenced their findings with lunar samples that were brought back to Earth from NASA’s Apollo flights and the Russian Luna missions.

This composite image of the lunar surface highlights regions with varying mare compositions and enigmatic small volcanic structures known as “domes.”
This composite image of the lunar surface highlights regions with varying mare compositions and enigmatic small volcanic structures known as “domes.” (Image credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University)

These titanium-rich areas on the moon puzzled the researchers. The highest abundance of titanium in similar rocks on Earth hovers around 1 percent or less, the scientists explained. The new map shows that these troves of titanium on the moon range from about 1 percent to a little more than 10 percent.

“We still don’t really understand why we find much higher abundances of titanium on the moon compared to similar types of rocks on Earth,” Robinson said. “What the lunar titanium-richness does tell us is something about the conditions inside the moon shortly after it formed, knowledge that geochemists value for understanding the evolution of the moon.”

Valuable titanium ore

Titanium on the moon is primarily found in the mineral ilmenite, a compound that contains iron, titanium and oxygen. If humans one day mine on the moon, they could break down ilmenite to separate these elements.

Furthermore, Apollo data indicated that titanium-rich minerals are more efficient at retaining solar wind particles, such as helium and hydrogen. These gases would likely be vital resources in the construction of lunar colonies and for exploration of the moon, the researchers said. [Lunar Legacy: 45 Apollo Moon Mission Photos]

“Astronauts will want to visit places with both high scientific value and a high potential for resources that can be used to support exploration activities,” Robinson said. “Areas with high titanium provide both — a pathway to understanding the interior of the moon and potential mining resources.”

The lunar map also shows how space weather changes the surface of the moon. Charged particles from solar wind and micrometeorite impacts can change the moon’s surface materials, pulverizing rock into a fine powder and altering the chemical composition of the lunar surface.

“One of the exciting discoveries we’ve made is that the effects of weathering show up much more quickly in ultraviolet than in visible or infrared wavelengths,” study co-author Brett Denevi, of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., said in a statement. “In the [Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera] ultraviolet mosaics, even craters that we thought were very young appear relatively mature. Only small, very recently formed craters show up as fresh regolith exposed on the surface.”

Parts of Venus, which could be home to life, might be on the moon

In September 2019, a separate group of researchers suggested Venus was once habitable

Pieces of Venus, which scientists recently said showed signs of potential life in its clouds, could actually live on the moon, according to a new study.

The research, which has been accepted by the Planetary Science Journal, said the second planet in the solar system could have sent “as many as 10 billion rocks” into space after impacts from asteroids and comets. These rocks may have ultimately intersected with Earth and the moon.

“Some of these rocks will eventually land on the moon as Venusian meteorites,” said the study’s lead author, Samuel Cabot, a Yale graduate student, in a statement.

It’s likely that these impacts happen “every hundred million years or so,” the statement added but were more frequent billions of years ago.

“The moon offers safe keeping for these ancient rocks,” Cabot explained. “Anything from Venus that landed on Earth is probably buried very deep, due to geological activity. These rocks would be much better preserved on the moon.”

Venus, which has been called “Earth’s evil twin,” has an extremely harsh climate, with a surface temperature of 864 degrees Fahrenheit. Researchers are still learning a great deal about its past, and any fragments that live on the moon could provide a wealth of information, Yale University astronomer and study co-author Gregory Laughlin said.

“An ancient fragment of Venus would contain a wealth of information,” Laughlin explained. “Venus’ history is closely tied to important topics in planetary science, including the past influx of asteroids and comets, atmospheric histories of the inner planets, and the abundance of liquid water.”

In September 2019, a separate group of researchers suggested Venus was once habitable, with stable temperatures and was home to “liquid water” for 2 to 3 billion years. Eventually, a “dramatic transformation” started happening more than 700 million years ago that completely reshaped the planet and resurfaced approximately 80% of it.

It’s likely too hot to support life, but NASA has recently said that it intends to explore the planet. In late 2019, the space agency said it was working on a stingray-like spacecraft to explore the planet.

In July, researchers revealed that Venus has nearly 40 active volcanoes on its surface. It has more volcanoes than any other celestial body in the solar system.

Separately in July, a number of researchers argued that going to the second planet in the solar system could have benefits for a manned mission to Mars.

24 potential ‘superhabitable’ planets discovered close to Earth

The planets, which may have conditions suited to host life, could be older, warmer, larger and wetter than Earth

Earth may be the only planet that we know of that supports life, but that doesn’t mean it’s the best one for it.

A new study, published in the scientific journal Astrobiology, has identified 24 potentially “superhabitable” planets that may have conditions more suited to host life. They could be slightly older than the Earth (4.5 billion years old), “a little larger, slightly warmer and possibly wetter.” They may also orbit stars with longer lifespans than the sun, the researchers found.

“With the next space telescopes coming up, we will get more information, so it is important to select some targets,” Washington State University scientist Dirk Schulze-Makuch said in a statement obtained by Fox News. “We have to focus on certain planets that have the most promising conditions for complex life. However, we have to be careful to not get stuck looking for a second Earth because there could be planets that might be more suitable for life than ours.”

The major criteria the researchers looked at to determine the exoplanets are as follows:

  • Reside within the habitable zone — defined as the area around a star where a planet could support liquid water.
  • Have cooler G stars (the sun is a G star) or K dwarf stars.
  • Is up to 10% larger than Earth.
  • Could have a surface temperature of approximately 5 degrees Celsius greater than Earth.

The 24 exoplanets are more than 100 light-years from Earth, but could be identified by future space telescopes, such as NASA’s James Web Space Telescope, the researchers added. A light-year, which measures distance in space, is approximately 6 trillion miles.

In July, Fox News reported that the launch of the James Webb Telescope originally scheduled for March 2021 was pushed back to Oct. 31, 2021, because of the coronavirus pandemic.

Among the 24 exoplanets, none of them meet all of the criteria to be “superhabitable,” but one of them has four of the characteristics, signaling it may indeed be more suited for life than Earth.

“It’s sometimes difficult to convey this principle of superhabitable planets because we think we have the best planet,” added Schulze-Makuch, who is also a researcher at the Technical University in Berlin. “We have a great number of complex and diverse lifeforms, and many that can survive in extreme environments. It is good to have adaptable life, but that doesn’t mean that we have the best of everything.”

More than 4,500 exoplanets have been discovered by NASA in total, approximately 50 of which were believed to potentially be habitable as of September 2018. They have the right size and the right orbit of their star to support surface water and, at least theoretically, to support life.